Research Policy. Apr2008, Vol. 37 Issue 3, p473-491. 19p.
INDUSTRIAL research, PRODUCT management, RAPID prototyping, and TECHNOLOGICAL innovations
Abstract: Specialists of different domains have to collaborate whenever technically demanding product innovations are developed. Their respective knowledge contributions need to be integrated into a functioning whole. Two approaches provide insight into how this is achieved: the dominating cross-learning approach assumes that the specialists of different knowledge domains have to intensively learn from each other in order to be able to jointly develop the new product. This cross-learning implies that groups of specialists transfer their specific knowledge, which encompasses different concepts (theories), methods and world views, among each other. However, some researchers argue that intensive cross-learning between specialists is a considerable expense in time and effort and, therefore, inefficient. They insist that integration of specialists’ knowledge is achieved through structural mechanisms that significantly reduce the need for cross-learning. This article is based on one of the latter approaches. We argue that the mechanisms of transactive memory, modularization and prototyping in combination can considerably reduce knowledge transfers. This assumption has found empirical support for incremental innovations. On the basis of a comparison between incremental and radical innovation projects in an electrotechnical company, we analyze whether the assumption that, on the basis of structural mechanisms, specialists can integrate their knowledge without having to intensively learn from each other, also holds for radical innovations. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Stock, Ruth Maria, von Hippel, Eric, and Gillert, Nils Lennart
Research Policy. May2016, Vol. 45 Issue 4, p757-769. 13p.
CONSUMER behavior, INNOVATIONS in business, PRODUCT management, PROBLEM solving, and PERSONALITY
Via a study of innovating and non-innovating German consumers, we explore links between the “Big Five” personality traits and successful accomplishment of three basic innovation process stages by consumer-innovators: (1) generating an idea for a new product or product improvement, (2) developing a prototype that implements that idea, and (3) diffusing the innovation to others. We find that personality traits are significantly associated with success differ at each stage. First, those who score higher on openness to experience are significantly more likely to have new product ideas. Second, being introverted and conscientious is significantly associated with successful prototyping. Third, those who possess high levels of conscientiousness are more likely to successfully commercially diffuse their innovations, whereas, in contrast, conscientiousness lowers the likelihood of successful peer-to-peer diffusion. Since the personality traits associated with successful completion of each stage differ, and the same individual with the same traits must traverse each stage in sequence, we find that personality traits strongly affect the likelihood of overall success. That is, an individual innovator with a personality profile highly favorable to successful completion of all stages is several times more likely to successfully complete all three stages than is an individual with a highly unfavorable profile. We suggest solutions to this practical problem, and also offer suggestions for further research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]