Ferrari, Ana Lya Moya, Piculo dos Santos, Aline Darc, Bertolaccini, Guilherme da Silva, Medola, Fausto Orsi, and Sandnes, Frode Eika
Ferrari, A.L.M., Piculo dos Santos, A.D., Bertolaccini, G.S., Medola, F.O. & Sandnes, F.E. (2020). Evaluation of orthosis rapid prototyping during the design process: Analysis of verification models. In: M. Di Nicolantonio, E. Rossi & T. Alexander (Eds.), Advances in additive manufacturing, modeling systems and 3D prototyping: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Additive Manufacturing, Modeling Systems and 3D Prototyping, Cham: Springer (pp. 298-307)
Medlej, Maroun, Stuban, Steven M. F., and Dever, Jason R.
Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Oct2017, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p626-655. 30p.
SYSTEMS engineering, RAPID prototyping, DEFENSE industries, MANUFACTURING processes, and LIKELIHOOD ratio tests
In 2007, John Young, then-Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, mandated the use of "competitive prototyping" strategies in defense acquisition. Further, Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02 includes considerations for prototyping in the acquisition strategy. A 2017 memorandum circulated by Young lists five prototyping benefits, which are expected to "reduce technical risk, validate designs, validate cost estimates, evaluate manufacturing processes, and refine requirements." However, a process to assess whether, and to what extent, a prototype will be or has been successful in achieving these benefits is not currently in use by the Department of Defense. Because cost increases and schedule extension downsides are inherent in prototyping, such an assessment is critical. This research proposes an approach for assessing the likelihood of achieving expected prototyping benefits based on identifying the factors yielding these benefits as well as their relative weights. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Tih, Siohong, Wong, Kok-Kee, Lynn, Gary S., and Reilly, Richard R.
Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing. 2016, Vol. 31 Issue 4, p437-448. 12p.
RAPID prototyping, NEW product development, COMMERCIAL products, CUSTOMER satisfaction, and INFORMATION dissemination
Purpose Rapid prototyping can potentially accelerate the entire process of new product development (NPD), enabling a high level of customer involvement and hence new product success (NPS). This study aims to examine the relationship between prototyping and NPS, and the moderating effect of customer involvement, as well as the influence of speed of information dissemination on customer involvement.Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using the survey method through structured questionnaires. The key participants were management and team leaders from technology-based companies.Findings The results indicate that prototyping positively correlates with NPS, particularly when customer involvement is high. The speed of information dissemination, both from customers and on competitive products, has a positive impact on customer involvement.Research limitations/implications The study was limited by the undefined development stage of the prototype when offered for customer feedback. Future studies could focus on how customer involvement at each stage of prototype development affects NPS through a moderating effect.Practical implications The study confirms that investing in prototyping equipment for NPD increases the probability of NPS. Information capturing customers’ views and on competitive products in the market should be shared among the NPD teams. This could encourage better sharing of opinions and perceptions with customers about whether new products meet their wishes and expectations.Originality/value This study demonstrates that customer involvement moderates the relationship between prototyping and NPS. The degree of customer involvement depended on the speed of response of the customers themselves and on how well competitive product information was disseminated within the NPD team. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
A fiber in fiber (FIF) bioreactor was designed and developed for cell culture to become a bioartificial liver device. The design consists of a conventional hollow fiber cartridge as a cell culture system with the addition of a second set of hollow fibers places within the lumens of the primary set. This arrangement provides three discrete spaces (compartments). A 3D CAD model of the device was developed and used to provide the suitable arrangement of these compartments. Internal and external diameters of the commercially available hollow fibers were studied and chosen. Two configurations of the device were developed and tested. Based on a 3D CAD model, two modules of the device were constructed and studied. Experimental evaluation of small scale FIF improved device prototype were constructed and results from studied quality assurance are also presented. The results showed that the developed bioartificial liver device has an excellent oxygen transfer rate which can improve the achievement of high density cell culture. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
PROTOTYPES, MAGNETIC fields, NEUTRON sources, and PARTICLE accelerators
Many applications using accelerator beams require a nearly uniform beam distribution at the target. A nested structure magnet producing a step-like magnet field has been proposed to transform an originally Gaussian or even irregular distribution into a more-or-less uniform one at targets. In this paper, the prototyping of a step-like field magnet is presented, which is based on the application in the China Spallation Neutron Source where the magnets are used to obtain a uniform beam profile from an initially irregular distribution at the spallation target. It includes the magnet design, 3D magnetic field calculation, prototype fabrication and field measurement. The prototyping confirms the technical feasibility of the magnet structure and the magnetic field quality consistent with the field calculations. The design improvements are discussed from the prototyping experience. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
PROTOTYPES, MATHEMATICAL optimization, FINITE element method, SIMULATION methods & models, PERMANENT magnets, MAGNETIC flux, SHEET-steel, ELECTRIC circuits, ELECTRIC generators, ELECTRIC windings, and ELECTRIC inductance
This paper presents the design, prototyping, and analysis of a novel modular transverse flux permanent-magnet disk generator. The disk-shaped structure simplifies the construction procedure by using laminated steel sheets. To reduce output harmonics, the excitation of the generator is done by circular flat shaped Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. First, a typical low power generator is designed, and then partially optimized. The optimization objective is to find an inner radius which maximizes the power factor, the output power to mass ratio, and the efficiency. The generator equivalent circuit parameters are computed by three-dimensional finite-element analyses. The simulation results show that the power factor of the proposed structure is considerably greater than the power factor previously reported for other transverse flux permanent-magnet generator structures. To verify the simulation results, a prototype has been constructed and tested. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulation results. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Luckham, David C., Vera, James, Bryan, Doug, Augustin, Larry, and Belz, Frank
The Journal of Systems and Software. June 1993, Vol. 21 Issue 3, p253, 13 p. chart
Timing, System Design, Models of Computation, Scientific Research, Prototype, Program Development Techniques, Synchronization, Object-oriented languages, Concurrent programming, Object-oriented languages -- Design and construction, and Concurrent programming -- Methods
RAPIDE is a concurrent, object-oriented language specifically designed for prototyping large concurrent systems. One of the principle design goals has been to adopt a computation model in which the synchronization, concurrency, data flow, and timing aspects of a prototype are explicitly represented and easily accessible both to the prototype itself and to the prototyper. This article describes the partially ordered event set (poset) computation model and the features of RAPIDE for using posets in reactive prototypes and for automatically checking posets. An example prototyping scenario illustrates uses of the poset computation model, with and without timing. (Reprinted by permission of the publisher.)
Use of software transformations for software evolution is examined. The effects of software transformations on program synthesis and program optimization have been studied extensively, but it remains difficult to specify the desired behavior of a software system before the implementation is developed. The use of software transformations for developing requirements based on software prototyping is explored. Emphasis is placed on transformations that change a system's behavior. A new, general classification of transformations is presented. The transformations are based on their effects on system interfaces, externally observable behavior and the abstraction level of a system description. A process model for software evolution is described that utilizes prototyping techniques and utilizes the new class of transformations to support the process.
IEEE Software. Nov 1992, Vol. 9 Issue 6, p77, 5 p.
Prototype, Software Design, Program Development Techniques, New Technique, Enhancements, Computer programming -- Methods, and Prototypes, Engineering -- Design and construction
Prototyping is the construction and analysis of an executable model that approximates a proposed system. Hardware prototypes are used to measure and evaluate aspects of proposed designs that are difficult to determine analytically, while software prototypes usually focus on evaluating the accuracy of problem formulation, studying the range of solutions available, and determining the interactions required between the system and its environment. The three primary benefits of prototyping are improved communication through demonstration, reduced risk through more certain communication between users and developers, and easier specification validation. Prototypes must be built quickly and designed for easy and fast modification; computer-aided prototyping environments should be integrated with tools for measuring, optimizing, and refining the prototype design into a production-quality product. Prototyping approaches are examined.
Prototype, Methods, Computer Science, Software Engineering, Program Development Techniques, and Software Engineering -- Methods
Operational prototyping avoids the dangers of combining rapid prototypes with evolutionary prototypes by layering a rapid prototype atop a solid evolutionary base. Rapid, or throwaway, prototypes are often used in an attempt to discover the customer's true needs; evolutionary prototypes are built in a quality manner and implement only confirmed requirements. Both have their limitations, and a combination of the two often results in trying to extensively evolve a rapid prototype. With an operational prototype, an evolutionary prototype is made into a baseline using typical development methods, and only the requirements that are well understood are specified and implemented. Multiple customer sites and a trained prototyper receive copies of the baseline, and the prototyper watches the user at the system at each site. Additional operational prototyping concepts are discussed.
Directories, Stereolithography, Prototype, Three-Dimensional Graphics, Computer-Aided Design, Computer-Aided Manufacturing, Light Sculpting Inc. -- Product information, Helisys Inc. -- Product information, Light Sculpting LSI-1115MA (CAD/CAM system) -- Design and construction, Helisys LOM-2030 (CAD/CAM system) -- Design and construction, Quadrax Laser Technologies Mark 1000 Laser Modeling System (CAD/CAM system) -- Design and construction, Computer-aided manufacturing, Stereolithography -- Usage, and CAD-CAM systems industry -- Product information
There are several technologies for rapid prototyping, a manufacturing technique in which the prototype of a part is created in hours rather than weeks. Rapid prototyping systems use three dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) files, slicing the image into cross sections and constructing layers of solid material, bonding each to the one before it. 3D Systems Inc $385,000 SLA 190 uses stereolithography and focuses an ultraviolet light onto a liquid polymer. It can produce a 20X20X20 inch part in 3 hours. Stratasys Inc's $178,000 3D Modeler uses fused deposition modeling to produce a 12X12X12 inch part in under five hours. Helisys' $110,000 LOM-2030 uses laminated object modeling to create a 20X30X20 inch part in 15 to 30 hours. Light Sculpting Inc offers the $129,700 LSI-1115MA which produces an 11X11X15 inch part at 40 seconds per layer. Quadrax Laser Technologies Makes the $195,000 Mark 1000 Laser Modeling System which uses laser modeling to produce a 12X12X12 inch part in six to twenty-four hours.
Engels, Marc, Lauwereins, Rudy, and Peperstraete, J.A.
IEEE Design & Test of Computers. June 1991, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p52, 11 p. chart Block diagram of a DSP uniprocessor board.
Digital Signal Processor, Prototype, Circuit Design, New Technique, Multiprocessing, System Design, Boards/Cards, Low Cost, and Connectivity
Prototyping is usually not done in the early stages of digital signal processor (DSP) design because of the time and money required to design dedicated prototyping hardware. A rapid-prototype setup is proposed with general-purpose hardware to minimize development cost and advanced programming tools to reduce programming time. The hardware includes commercial DSP processors connected to form powerful multiprocessors; the graphical programming environment allows easy programming, compiling, debugging and testing of real-time DSP algorithms on the hardware platform. The system has been used to design a prototype for a digital audio broadcasting system. Included in the system are DSP boards from Loughborough Sound Images, Philips Leuven, Motorola and Texas Instruments.
IEEE Design & Test of Computers. June 1991, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p4, 7 p. photograph
Prototype, Computer-Aided Design, Circuit Design, Application-Specific Integrated Circuit, New Technique, Custom IC, Simulation, Verifier, Quickturn Systems Inc. -- Product information, and Quickturn Systems RPM Emulation System (Circuit designer) -- Design and construction
Circuit designers need a way to verify a total system completely before committing application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and custom chips to silicon to allow software and hardware to be developed concurrently. Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) allow an implementation ideal for prototyping while not requiring the construction of silicon chips. Computer-aided prototyping (CAP) combines computer-aided engineering (CAE) translation and synthesis software with FPGA technology to produce hardware prototypes of chip designs automatically from netlists. Combining CAP with commercially available simulation tools allows systems designers to delay the decision to fabricate silicon chip prototypes until the latest possible time in the development cycle while still having a hardware prototype of the system running with software early in the cycle. Quickturn Systems' RPM Emulation System, the first commercial CAP system, is described.
IEEE Software. May 1991, Vol. 8 Issue 3, p86, 6 p. table Descriptive statistics for users' affective reactions by design strategy.
Prototype, Modeling, Programming, Testing, New Technique, Program Development Techniques, Productivity, and User Studies
Research on the use of data modeling while prototyping an information system indicates that this technique enables designers to quickly develop quality systems. Data modeling and prototyping are more often used independently, but the research shows that using them together increased productivity results. One problem encountered is that programmers using the technique complain about increased complexity and report lower levels of satisfaction. The technique allowed them, however, to prototype a correct system with fewer iterations. Prototyping eases the establishment of requirements specification during development, and data modeling increases the efficiency and structuring of data.
Computer. May 1994, Vol. 27 Issue 5, p48, 9 p. table
Synchronous, Prototype, Work group computing, User Interface, User Group, Synchronous communications -- Analysis, and Work group computing -- Analysis
A platform for prototyping strongly shared applications is presented. Synchronous group applications can be treated as strongly shared applications because members of a cooperative team can work on and modify commonly-shared data and at the same time know how the other members are manipulating the data. A setback of strong sharing is that users are not prevented from accessing data even when its validity may be questionable. An environment for strong sharing should be developed wherein coordination support and conference management support are provided. These requirements were considered in developing Object World (OW), a platform for managing, creating and utilizing strongly shared objects. OW is implemented in Common Lisp and Common Lisp Object System. OW allows designers to prototype a strongly shared application by specifying data structure, model and dynamics.