RAPID prototyping, DECISION making, ANALYTIC hierarchy process, GREY relational analysis, FUZZY numbers, and STRENGTH of materials
A multitude of rapid prototyping (RP) systems and technologies have come up since the introduction of additive process. Owing to the enlarging number of these systems with distinctive efficacy, the problem of selecting an appropriate system for a particular requirement is a cumbersome task. Henceforth, this work comes up with a strategy based on multi-attribute decision making to select a most suitable RP system. The presence of subjectivity in decision making as well as the existence of imprecision from various sources emphasize the methods which must consider uncertainty and vagueness. A decision advisor based on uncertainty theories, including fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) and grey relational analysis (GRA) has been introduced. It provides a comprehensive database comprising thirty nine commercially available RP systems. The evaluation attributes consisting of machine cost, accuracy, layer thickness, machine speed, material cost, net build size volume, machine weight, surface roughness, and material strength were utilized to characterize the different machines. The FAHP based on trapezoidal fuzzy number was implemented to determine the priority weights of various attributes, while the GRA was employed to realize the best RP system and technology. The authors believe that this system has the potential to transform into a fully developed RP selection system. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Ferrari, Ana Lya Moya, Piculo dos Santos, Aline Darc, Bertolaccini, Guilherme da Silva, Medola, Fausto Orsi, and Sandnes, Frode Eika
Ferrari, A.L.M., Piculo dos Santos, A.D., Bertolaccini, G.S., Medola, F.O. & Sandnes, F.E. (2020). Evaluation of orthosis rapid prototyping during the design process: Analysis of verification models. In: M. Di Nicolantonio, E. Rossi & T. Alexander (Eds.), Advances in additive manufacturing, modeling systems and 3D prototyping: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Additive Manufacturing, Modeling Systems and 3D Prototyping, Cham: Springer (pp. 298-307)
Usó, Vanessa Ghiraldeli, Sandnes, Frode Eika, and Medola, Fausto Orsi
Usó, V.G., Sandnes, F.E. & Medola, F.O. (2020). Using virtual reality and rapid prototyping to co-create together with hospitalized children. In: M. Di Nicolantonio, E. Rossi & T. Alexander (Eds.). Advances in additive manufacturing, modeling systems and 3D prototyping: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Additive Manufacturing, Modeling Systems and 3D Prototyping, 2020 (pp. 279-288) Cham: Springer
Robinson, Christopher J., Carbonell, Pablo, Jervis, Adrian J., Yan, Cunyu, Hollywood, Katherine A., Dunstan, Mark S., Currin, Andrew, Swainston, Neil, Spiess, Reynard, Taylor, Sandra, Mulherin, Paul, Parker, Steven, Rowe, William, Matthews, Nicholas E., Malone, Kirk J., Le Feuvre, Rosalind, Shapira, Philip, Barran, Perdita, Turner, Nicholas J., and Micklefield, Jason
RAPID prototyping, MONOMERS, MANUFACTURING processes, and SYNTHETIC biology
Bio-based production of industrial chemicals using synthetic biology can provide alternative green routes from renewable resources, allowing for cleaner production processes. To efficiently produce chemicals on-demand through microbial strain engineering, biomanufacturing foundries have developed automated pipelines that are largely compound agnostic in their time to delivery. Here we benchmark the capabilities of a biomanufacturing pipeline to enable rapid prototyping of microbial cell factories for the production of chemically diverse industrially relevant material building blocks. Over 85 days the pipeline was able to produce 17 potential material monomers and key intermediates by combining 160 genetic parts into 115 unique biosynthetic pathways. To explore the scale-up potential of our prototype production strains, we optimized the enantioselective production of mandelic acid and hydroxymandelic acid, achieving gram-scale production in fed-batch fermenters. The high success rate in the rapid design and prototyping of microbially-produced material building blocks reveals the potential role of biofoundries in leading the transition to sustainable materials production. Image 1 • An automated biomanufacturing pipeline is benchmarked for the production of material monomers. • Over 85 days, 160 genes were screened for activity, assembled into 115 unique pathways and tested for in vivo production. • E. coli production strains were successfully constructed to produce 17 target compounds at competitive titers. • Scale-up potential is demonstrated through enantioselective production of mandelic acid targets at gram-scale in bioreactors. • The high success rate demonstrates the capabilities of biofoundries to rapidly prototype microbial production strains. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
WIRELESS power transmission, RAPID prototyping, RADIO frequency, GOLD coatings, and STAINLESS steel
This article presents an electromagnetically powered stent designed for hyperthermia treatment of in-stent restenosis. The stent device based on medical-grade stainless steel serves as a radio frequency (RF) inductive receiver to produce mild heating wirelessly through resonant-coupling power transfer, while acting as a mechanical scaffold inside an artery similar to commercial stents. The device and its custom transmitter are prototyped and optimized to show efficient wireless power transfer and stent heating through in vitro tests. The inductive stent with its helical pattern is gold coated to achieve a $3.5\times $ higher quality ($Q$) factor, improving heating performance of the device. The combinational use of independent resonant antennas with the power antenna is found to significantly boost stent temperature by up to 96% with an intermediate tissue layer. Upon matching the frequencies at which the $Q$ factors of the inductive stent, power antenna, and booster antenna are peaked, the stent excited through 10 mm-thick tissue exhibits a temperature increase of 18 °C, well over a necessary level for targeted hyperthermia treatment. The prototype achieves heating efficiencies (HEs) of 15.5–3.2 °C/W with a tissue thickness of 5–15 mm. These results indicate that the proposed resonant-heating stent system with the prototyped transmitter is promising for further development toward its clinical application. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This research work has been completed by concentrating on the structure of inserts for foot orthosis fabricated by utilizing rapid prototyping technology. Thermoplastic elastomer and thermoplastic polyurethane are the most commonly used materials that are being used in customized three-dimensional printed orthotic insoles, which are comfortable and prevent the user in many foot disorders. Thermo-softening viscoelastic polymers, explicitly Filaflex and Ninjaflex, have been printed by utilizing Flash Forge three-dimensional printers to evaluate the mechanical properties of specimens with alterations of the percentage rate fill-up design replicas. The results are compared on the basis of hardness test, flexural/bending test, and tensile test using Durometer and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). It has also been observed that the most significant effecting factor is infill density. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. Sep2019, Vol. 34 Issue 9, p8715-8723. 9p.
RAPID prototyping, CURRENT-voltage characteristics, and FEEDBACK (Electronics)
Using a photovoltaic (PV) emulator (PVE) simplifies the testing of the PV generation system. However, conventional controllers used for PVEs suffer from oscillating output voltage, requiring a high number of iterations, or being too complex to be implemented. This paper proposes a controller based on a resistance feedback control strategy that produces a stable and fast converging operating point for the PVE. The resistance feedback control strategy requires a new type of PV model, which is the current–resistance (I–R) PV model. This model is computed using a binary search method at a fast convergence rate. It is combined with a closed-loop buck converter using a proportional-integral controller to form the resistance feedback control strategy. The PVE's controller is implemented into dSPACE ds1104 hardware platform for experimental validation. The acquired experimental results show that the proposed PVE is able to follow the current–voltage characteristic of the PV module accurately. In addition, the PVE's efficiency is more than 90% under maximum power point operation. The transient response of the proposed PVE is similar to the PV panel during irradiance changes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Conservation Biology. Dec 2019, Vol. 33 Issue 6, p1448, 3 p.
***** No abstract is available for this article. Article Note: Article impact statement: Web-application development frameworks enable the creation of decision-support tool prototypes for actionable conservation science. CAPTION(S): Table 1. List of web-application development frameworks that might be useful for conservation scientists. Byline: Denis Valle, Kok Ben Toh, Justin Millar
de Lima, Luiz Felipe Souza, Paes de Barros, Anna Júlia Brandão, de Cássia Martini, Andresa, Stocco, Matias Bassinello, Kuczmarski, Antonio Henrique, and de Souza, Roberto Lopes
Ciência Rural. 2019, Vol. 49 Issue 12, p1-4. 4p.
PHOTOGRAMMETRY, RAPID prototyping, THREE-dimensional printing, ORTHOPEDICS, and LABORATORY animals
Rapid prototyping (RP) is an innovative technology that allows one to obtain a prototype of a mold quickly and accurately from a virtual model. This study aimed to establish the use of photogrammetry and 3D prototyping for the production of bone biomodels of the canine species for training in orthopedic techniques in veterinary medicine. Virtual bio-modelling was performed by the photogrammetry technique with commercial anatomical pieces, and physical biomodelling was performed by 3D printing. Osteotomies were performed on the biomodels that served as platforms for osteosynthesis of the femur and ileum, and the final product was not associated with a risk of biological contamination, was able to support special orthopedic materials, and was used for training and surgical planning. We concluded that the use of photogrammetry and RP for the production of bone biomodels of the canine species enabled techniques for fracture reduction to be performed with the use of special instruments, enabling training in the area of veterinary orthopedics in an economically viable manner with an alternative to experimental animals. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Purpose: To explore 3D printing for rapid development of prototype thin slab low‐Z/density ionization chamber arrays viable for custom needs in radiotherapy dosimetry and quality assurance (QA). Materials and methods: We designed and fabricated parallel plate ionization chambers and ionization chamber arrays using an off‐the‐shelf 3D printing equipment. Conductive components of the detectors were made of conductive polylactic acid (cPLA) and insulating components were made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). We characterized the detector responses using a Varian TrueBeam linac at 95 cm SSD in slab solid water phantom at 5 cm depth. We measured the current‐voltage (IV) curves, the response to different energy beam lines (2.5 MV, 6 MV, 6 MV FFF) for various dose rates and compared them to responses of a commercial Exradin A12 ionization chamber. We measured off‐axis ratio (OAR) for several small field static multi‐leaf collimators field sizes (0.5–3 cm) and compared them to OAR data obtained for commissioning of stereotactic radiotherapy. Results: We identified the printing capability and the limitations of a low‐cost off‐the‐shelf 3D printer for rapid prototyping of detector arrays. The design of the array with sub‐millimeter size features conformed to the 3D printing capabilities. IV‐curve for the array showed a strong polarity effect (8%) due to the design. Results for the parallel plate and the array compared well with A12 chamber: monitor unit (MU) dependence for the array was within a few % and the response to different energy beam lines was within 1%. Off‐axis dose profiles measured with the array were comparable to dose profiles obtained in water tank and stereotactic diode after accounting for the size of the chambers. Dose error was within 2% at the center of the profile and slightly larger at the penumbra. Conclusions: Rapid prototyping of ion chambers by means of low‐cost 3D printing is feasible with certain limitations in the design and spatial accuracy of the printed details. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, CREEP (Materials), GLASS transition temperature, HONEYCOMBS, THREE-dimensional printing, and SPECIFIC gravity
Additive manufacture and rapid prototyping are versatile methods for the generation of lattice materials for applications in the creep regime. However, these techniques introduce defects that can degrade the macroscopic creep strength. In the present study, the uniaxial tensile response of two-dimensional PMMA lattices is measured in the visco-plastic regime: tests are performed at 100 °C which is slightly below the glass transition temperature T g of PMMA. Both as-manufactured defects (Plateau borders and strut thickness variation) and as-designed defects (missing cell walls, solid inclusions, and randomly perturbed joints) are introduced. The dispersion in macroscopic strength is measured for relative densities in the range of 0.07–0.19. It is observed that initial failure of the lattice is diffuse in nature: struts fail at a number of uncorrelated locations, followed by the development of a single macroscopic crack transverse to the loading direction. In contrast, the same PMMA lattice fails in a correlated, brittle manner at room temperature. An FE study is performed to gain insight into the diffuse failure mode and the role played by as-manufactured defects, including the dispersion in tensile strength of individual struts of the lattice. A high damage tolerance to as-designed defects is observed experimentally: there is negligible knock-down in strength due to the removal of cell walls or to the presence of solid inclusions. These findings aid the design and manufacture of damage tolerant lattices in the creep regime. Elastic-brittle versus visco-plastic failure ofPMMA lattices. Image 1 [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, MANUFACTURING processes, HOLDER spaces, IMAGE analysis, WEIGHT measurement, PRINT materials, and METAL powders
Powder caking can dramatically affect powder handling and downstream production processes. Understanding the key factors that contribute to bulk powder caking is crucial. This article introduces the Hirschberg caking device (HCD), which is a 3D-printed device allowing for parallel testing of powder caking in a cylindrical geometry. In the HCD setup, the powder sample is stored in controlled conditions in the sample holder. On removal of the sample holder, the caked powder will remain in the shape determined by the sample geometry while the remaining powder will fall down. Caking indices can be calculated based on image analysis and weight measurement. The results obtained for the caking of lactose monohydrate with the HCD were in good agreement with the results obtained by a ring shear tester. In addition, a strain tester was used to measure the strength of the formed cakes. Using this approach, critical storage conditions and the required concentration of a given anticaking agent (talc) for lactose monohydrate could be identified. This work demonstrates the potential of rapid prototyping in powder characterization by introducing a fast and affordable approach for exploring and trouble-shooting powder caking. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Systems Research & Behavioral Science. Nov2019, Vol. 36 Issue 6, p835-844. 10p.
NEW product development, SYSTEMS design, SYSTEMS theory, COMPUTER graphics, COMPUTER simulation, HUMAN anatomical models (Objects), and PSYCHOPHYSICS
In almost all areas of the industry and more generally in the sector of development of manufacturing products, the realization of the product passes through several successive stages going from the design to the realization of the product. The most critical phase is prototyping because it is at this point that usually the most important decisions are made. In several sectors this step is very expensive, and in any case, the prototype undergoes several modifications and requires several validations before it is definitive for the transition to production. The prototype must generally constitute a model of the product that has all or part of the technical qualities and operating characteristics that must appear in the final product, to demonstrate or affirm the validity of the concept and thus its final validation, which increases the overall cost of the prototyping phase. In the vast majority of prototyping devices available for the moment, be it by additive or subtractive process, the realization of the prototype requires a lot of time, and once the prototype is made, it can only be modified by destructive techniques because the materials used are frozen and do not allow easy reuse. This study proposes a device for the prototyping of product, allowing a modification of the geometry of the prototype by means of a deformable composite membrane with shape memory, reusable and programmable. The device in question consists of a flexible composite membrane whose matrix is a flexible polymer, and the reinforcement is a shape‐memory alloy fibre and rubber effect, having a given electrical resistance. These shape memory fibres are woven in such a way as to ensure deformations in the direction normal to the plane of the membrane by injecting the current into each fibre. This is ensured by a cross weave allowing the control of the direction of the overall deformation through the deformation specific to each fibre. In this research work, we present the results of the modelling and simulation of the behaviour of a composite membrane with shape memory. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society. 2019, Vol. 20 Issue 8, p250-263. 14p.
COMMUNITY health nursing, RAPID prototyping, PERIODIC health examinations, NATIONAL competency-based educational tests, ONLINE education, and CONTINUING education
This study was conducted to develop an online education program for visiting health nurses on National Health Examination. The study period was from November 2016 to December 2017. The program was developed in stages using rapid prototyping methodology. 1) Learners' needs were identified through literature review and focus group interviews (FGIs) with visiting health nurses and stake-holders in the field. 2) The contents of the education program including counseling strategies regarding the heath of visiting health nurses were developed. 3) Online education materials were developed and piloted amongst learners. 4) The contents of educational programs were classified into eight learning modules, and online education drafts were pilot tested. 5) Based on feedback from learners, this program was revised and a web-based continuing education program for community nurses was developed. These education programs effectively assisted nurses with counseling regarding health examinations during visiting health nursing care. Therefore, the online continuing education program may be a very effective educational approach to improving nurses competency. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]