Systems Research & Behavioral Science. Nov2019, Vol. 36 Issue 6, p835-844. 10p.
NEW product development, SYSTEMS design, SYSTEMS theory, COMPUTER graphics, COMPUTER simulation, HUMAN anatomical models (Objects), and PSYCHOPHYSICS
In almost all areas of the industry and more generally in the sector of development of manufacturing products, the realization of the product passes through several successive stages going from the design to the realization of the product. The most critical phase is prototyping because it is at this point that usually the most important decisions are made. In several sectors this step is very expensive, and in any case, the prototype undergoes several modifications and requires several validations before it is definitive for the transition to production. The prototype must generally constitute a model of the product that has all or part of the technical qualities and operating characteristics that must appear in the final product, to demonstrate or affirm the validity of the concept and thus its final validation, which increases the overall cost of the prototyping phase. In the vast majority of prototyping devices available for the moment, be it by additive or subtractive process, the realization of the prototype requires a lot of time, and once the prototype is made, it can only be modified by destructive techniques because the materials used are frozen and do not allow easy reuse. This study proposes a device for the prototyping of product, allowing a modification of the geometry of the prototype by means of a deformable composite membrane with shape memory, reusable and programmable. The device in question consists of a flexible composite membrane whose matrix is a flexible polymer, and the reinforcement is a shape‐memory alloy fibre and rubber effect, having a given electrical resistance. These shape memory fibres are woven in such a way as to ensure deformations in the direction normal to the plane of the membrane by injecting the current into each fibre. This is ensured by a cross weave allowing the control of the direction of the overall deformation through the deformation specific to each fibre. In this research work, we present the results of the modelling and simulation of the behaviour of a composite membrane with shape memory. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
APPLICATION program interfaces, 5G networks, COMPUTER simulation, INTERNET of things, and POISSON processes
Simulation frameworks are important tools for the analysis and design of communication networks and protocols, but they can be extremely costly and/or complex (for the case of very specialized tools), or too naive and lacking proper features and support (for the case of ad-hoc tools). In this article, we present an analysis of three 5G scenarios using simmer, a recent R package for discrete-event simulation that sits between the above two paradigms. As our results show, it provides a simple yet very powerful syntax, supporting the efficient simulation of relatively complex scenarios at a low implementation cost. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The dental implant surgery results usually depend on dentists' clinical experiences and judgments. Most implant surgery utilizes the software to process pre-operation planning and simulation. Hence, this research intended to apply the rapid prototyping (RP) technique to build real mandible model for implant surgery simulation. Unlike other simple mandible RP models, vessels and nerves pathways are demonstrated in our model to help dentists to avoid false drillings on them. Besides, orientation pillars for surgical guide are included in the model. Moreover, for comparison's purpose, the platforms of placing indexing balls are also integrated. Computed tomography (CT) data of mandible were first converted to a CAD model with vessels, nerve, orientation pillars, and indexing platforms by a medical imaging processing software. RP technique was then utilized to obtain a real 3D model for pre-operation planning, surgical guide fabrication, and surgery simulation. The mandible model helped to drill holes on the traditional surgical guide by a 5-axis CNC drill press and it also drilled into the mandible model. Besides, the dentist simulated the drilling process in the dental implant surgery on the mandible model. Both drilled RP mandible models were CT-scanned and compared with the designed implant locations and angles. The errors are within acceptable region. Our approach has been successfully demonstrated in dental implant's pre-operation planning and simulation, which will help to increase the successful rate and safety of dental implant surgery. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, COMPUTER software, COMPUTER-aided design, COMPUTER simulation, KINEMATICS, MOTION, and AUTOMOBILE racing
This paper addresses the issue of creating physical prototypes of large-scale and complex assemblies using Rapid Prototyping technology. There are several technical challenges to overcome, both in software and the physical models. The challenges in software mainly stem from the fact that the mainstream CAD systems may not able to directly convert large-scale and complex assemblies to STL models. For the issues in the physical model, some of the components of the scaled assemblies are too small to fabricate using RP or too weak to produce viable prototypes for intended purposes. In addition, the paper presents information regarding support of relative motion between components in the RP model, which is desirable for demonstrating kinematics of the system. The paper proposes a systematic approach that addresses these issues and realizes quality physical prototypes serving intended purposes. Practical examples are employed in this paper, including a Formula SAE race car assembly that is used as the principle example for this study. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Layered manufacturing (LM) technologies, usually referred to as rapid prototyping (RP), have the ability to create a physical part directly from their computer model by adding materials on a layer-by-layer basis. Once a computer model is generated for a physical object, it needs to be communicated to other computer systems or LM machines to be further processed. Although it was developed specifically for the stereolithography process, a polygonal facet representation called stereolithography tessellation language (STL) has become the de facto industry standard for the transfer of geometric data to LM process planning system. However, STL has inevitable drawbacks such as redundancy, inaccuracy and lack of integrity. Furthermore, .STL file format is not compatible with high-level design information such as tolerance, mechanical properties and surface patterns, which will be indispensable for further design applications made by LM technologies. In this paper we propose an EXPRESS data model, an information exchange foundation of modeling operation, for the new data transfer scheme in LM community as one among STEP–NC (ISO 14649) modules. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
TIME series analysis, LINEAR induction motors, COMPUTER simulation, LINEAR machines (Electric machines), and FUZZY algorithms
The finite element method (FEM) is widely used for accurate design and analysis of electric machines; however, it suffers from long execution time. In this paper, for the first time hardware acceleration of two-dimensional FEM for a single-sided linear induction motor on the field programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed. The nonlinearity of the iron core as well as the movement are taken into consideration. A new sparse solver is proposed based on left-looking Gilbert–Peierls algorithm for the system of linear equations of FEM that need to be solved in different iterations and time steps. Implementation of the model is performed in a massively paralleled and deeply pipelined hardware architecture using VHDL coding with single precision floating-point number representation. The proposed emulation was performed at various time steps resulting in significant average speedup of 9.73 times in comparison with JMAG-Designer as a commercial finite element software, and the overall hardware latency of each time step for the emulation was 49.2 ms in average with minimum achievable FPGA clock of 5.59 ns. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The simulated characterisation and tuning of prototype antennas prior to manufacture is described in this study. The antennas incorporate Schottky diodes so as to frequency triple incident sub-THz power. Such a dual frequency, non-linear, device has been called a multenna. A metrology is outlined for ease of multiple measurements to permit exploring scenarios of multenna element design. Four options are optimally oriented and assembled onto an appropriately dimensioned tile substrate to minimise mutual coupling during characterisation of each element individually. Transmission measurements of the multennas are performed at 100 and 300 GHz: an example of resonant behaviour is presented. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
COMPUTER software, PROTOTYPES, TESTING, COMPUTER simulation, and DESIGN
A prototyping and simulation tool that supports the development of distributed programs is described. This tool, called Jems, forms a part of Jade, a distributed software prototyping environment. The Jade environment provides tools for the design, implementation, debugging, testing, maintenance, and performance analysis of distributed, concurrent programs. Novel features of Jade include the support of: multi-lingual distributed programs; flexible monitoring of inter-process communication; multiple views into executing programs via a window system; graphical animation of executing programs; and the prototyping of distributed software. This paper presents an overview of the Jade environment, describes the distributed software prototyping tool, and outlines the status of the project. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Wetland ecology, Nutrient cycles, Rapid prototyping, Geographic information systems, Computer simulation, Ecosystem services, and Metadata
Abstract: Great interest currently exists for developing ecosystem models to forecast how ecosystem services may change under alternative land use and climate futures. Ecosystem services are diverse and include supporting services or functions (e.g., primary production, nutrient cycling), provisioning services (e.g., wildlife, groundwater), regulating services (e.g., water purification, floodwater retention), and even cultural services (e.g., ecotourism, cultural heritage). Hence, the knowledge base necessary to quantify ecosystem services is broad and derived from many diverse scientific disciplines. Building the required interdisciplinary models is especially challenging as modelers from different locations and times may develop the disciplinary models needed for ecosystem simulations, and these models must be identified and made accessible to the interdisciplinary simulation. Additional difficulties include inconsistent data structures, formats, and metadata required by geospatial models as well as limitations on computing, storage, and connectivity. Traditional standalone and closed network systems cannot fully support sharing and integrating interdisciplinary geospatial models from variant sources. To address this need, we developed an approach to openly share and access geospatial computational models using distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and open geospatial standards. We included a means to share computational models compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services (WPS) standard to ensure modelers have an efficient and simplified means to publish new models. To demonstrate our approach, we developed five disciplinary models that can be integrated and shared to simulate a few of the ecosystem services (e.g., water storage, waterfowl breeding) that are provided by wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, DESIGN services, VIRTUAL reality, COMPUTER simulation, and REALITY
The article reports on a virtual reality approach of plastics packaging tooling and design firm R&D/Leverage that allows clients to perform real-time prototyping. Topics discussed include remarks from employee Derek Scherer on their LEVR virtual reality system, information on rapid prototyping, and reason that LEVR virtual reality is being called real-time prototyping.
ALGORITHMS, MANUFACTURES, ENGINEERING, MANUFACTURING processes, NEW product development, BIOMEDICAL engineering, COMPUTER simulation, and VIRTUAL reality
This paper proposes a multi-material virtual prototyping (MMVP) system that integrates the virtual reality (VR) and the layered manufacturing (LM) technologies for digital fabrication of heterogeneous multi-material prototypes for advanced product development and biomedical engineering. The system consists mainly of two algorithms for sequential and concurrent multi-toolpath planning, and a virtual prototyping system. The algorithms adopt a topological hierarchy-sorting algorithm to establish the hierarchy relationship of multi-material slice contours for facilitating toolpath planning of multi-material layered manufacturing (MMLM). Subsequently, the sequential multi-toolpath planning algorithm generates sequential toolpaths that avoid redundant tool movements. To reduce build time further, the concurrent multi-toolpath planning algorithm generates collision-free concurrent toolpaths. Based on the hierarchy information, a bounding box can be adopted to approximate envelopes of contour families of the same material property to simplify detection of tool collisions. The algorithms are integrated to form the MMVP system for planning, stereoscopic simulation, and validation of multi-toolpaths for MMLM. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
SYSTEMS design, FINITE element method, PERMANENT magnet motors, GENETIC algorithms, POWER density, ELECTROMAGNETIC fields, and COMPUTER simulation
This paper presents an axial-flux permanent magnet motor optimized by the genetic algorithm (GA)-based sizing equation and the finite-element analysis (FEA). The designed slotted TORUS motor produces sinusoidal back-EMF waveform, maximum power density, and reduced cogging torque. The GA obtained the dimensions of motors with different numbers of slots and the highest possible power density. Electromagnetic field analysis of the candidate motors obtained from GA with various dimensions is subjected through FEA to obtain the motors' characteristics. Based on the GA and FEA results, a candidate motor design is introduced and subjected to FEA for reoptimization and finalization of the motor design. Techniques like modifying winding configuration and permanent magnet skewing are investigated to attain the most sinusoidal back-EMF waveform and reduced cogging torque. FEA and GA simulation results are compared and agreed well to the flux density in various areas of the designed motor at no-load condition. The final designed motor (1 kW, 50 Hz, four poles) is fabricated and tested. Experimental results agree with those of the simulation, both satisfying the desired technical specifications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Deppe, M., Zanella, M., Robrecht, M., and Hardt, W.
Journal of Systems & Software. Mar2004, Vol. 70 Issue 3, p263. 12p.
PROTOTYPES, AUTOMOBILE industry, REAL-time control, and COMPUTER simulation
Rapid prototyping of complex systems embedded in even more complex environments raises the need for a layered design approach. Our example is a mechatronic design taken from the automotive industry and illustrates the rapid-prototyping procedure of real-time-critical control laws. The approach is based on an object-oriented structuring allowing not only central control units but also distributed control units as needed by today’s designs. The implementation of control laws is a hardware-in-the-loop simulation, refined in steps and reducing the simulation part at every one of these. On the lower level, common platforms, such as FPGAs, microcontrollers or specialized platforms, can be instantiated. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Moghaddam, Majid M., Hadi, Alireza, Tohidi, Amin, and Elahinia, Mohammad
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems & Structures. 9/1/2011, Vol. 22 Issue 13, p1489-1499. 11p.
ROBOTICS, COMPUTER software, SHAPE memory alloys, ACTUATORS, DEGREES of freedom, DEFORMATIONS (Mechanics), STIFFNESS, and COMPUTER simulation
In this article, a prototype of a biped robot actuated by SMA springs with minimum degrees of freedom is presented. SMA springs are a class of smart materials that are known for their high energy to weight ratios. It is shown that utilizing spring type SMAs has many advantages as large deformation, smooth and silent motion compared to ordinary type of actuators. A modular concept is applied for the development of the proposed biped robot where the SMA springs are utilized as actuators. A module with proper DOF is developed, that is its position and stiffness is controllable and makes the biped stable with five DOFs. Walking trajectory is generated validating the ZMP criteria and it is shown that this criterion can be simplified to the COG criteria due to slow response nature of the SMAs. To verify the design, a complete model of the biped actuated with SMA is developed through simulation with the help of MATLAB and Visual.Nastaran software. Finally to validate the results, a prototype is manufactured and tested. Experimental results show reasonable agreement with simulation results which resulted in stable walking of the proposed biped. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
PROTOTYPES, DIGITAL television, and COMPUTER simulation
Introduces Rapid Prototyping of a complex system and the difficulties that appear when a real-time prototype of such a system is approached. Rapid Prototyping of an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-based system; Implications of the reduction of the number of sub-carriers in an OFDM system; Non-real time implementation of the whole system.
PROTOTYPES, MANUFACTURING processes, VIRTUAL reality, COMPUTER simulation, and STEREOSCOPIC views
This paper proposes a CAVE-based multi-material virtual prototyping (CMMVP) system for immersive stereoscopic visualisation and optimisation of multi-material layered manufacturing (MMLM) processes. The CMMVP system consists mainly of a suite of software packages for simulation of MMLM processes, integrated with a multi-screen CAVE-based virtual reality (VR) system, to create an immersive virtual environment for digital fabrication of multi-material product prototypes. In comparison with desktop-based or semi-immersive VR systems, the CMMVP system blocks out environmental disturbances such that designers can fully immerse in performing stereoscopic visualisation and quality analysis of the resulting multi-material prototypes for subsequent improvements of a product design. The CMMVP system facilitates advanced product design and helps reduce product development time and cost substantially. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]