This article offers an administrative interpretation of how tax structure develops cumulatively. On the basis of cases of British tax structure development between 1939 and 1982, it explores the extent to which long-term fiscal change can be understood as the slow erosion of basic design features embedded in official structures of rules and bureaucracy, with alternative design principles being espoused after a long process of attrition in terms of subsidiary design features. It further explores the extent to which administrative considerations may shape the style in which new fiscal designs are introduced (by an assumed preference for step-by-step development or imitation as against all-in-one prototyping) and may set selection criteria for the rejection or reinforcement of tax designs in the long run. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
An experiment was conducted in order to assess the effects of three independent variables, rater training (accuracy versus error versus dimension), job analysis format (descriptions versus specifications) and congruence of training (congruent versus incongruent) on differential accuracy and halo and leniency error of job evaluation ratings. Subjects were 144 college students at a large midwestern university. The results indicated a significant main effect for job analysis format on all three dependent variables and a significant training X job analysis format effect on halo error. These results suggest at least some similarity in the processes across different types of rating tasks. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
LINEAR programming, DECISION support systems, MATHEMATICAL programming, MANAGEMENT information systems, and MANAGEMENT
This paper describes a system to represent linear programming models and their instances. In addition to a modeling language, MODLER has an extensive query capability which includes a multi-view architecture. Further, randomization options provide rapid prototyping. The MODLER system is part of a workbench for building and managing decision support systems that are based on linear programming. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The purpose of this study was to validate a selection process designed to predict sales skills for a telephone sales job. First, a job analysis was performed (n = 213) to identify the major functions and behavioral requirements of the job. Next, the test, a situational judgment inventory, was developed, and a concurrent criterion related validation study was completed (n = 236). The criterion measures were supervisory ratings of performance. Validity coefficients ranged from r=.16 (p>.01) to r=.24 (p>.001). In conclusion, the situational judgment inventory was found an effective vehicle for measuring telephone sales skills. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The finesse with which a sales person handles customers and clients is critical to success on the job. Because interpersonal behavior is a non- technical, noncognitive element of job performance, we used items from the Hogan Personality Inventory (HIP) to develop a new Sales Potential Inventory (SPI) for use as a selection procedure. The HPI is a well-researched measure of normal personality which was developed specifically to evaluate real-world interpersonal competencies. The SPI was developed as part of a concurrent, criterion-related selection study for the position of Sales Representative in Preston Trucking Company, a large freight transportation company with 82 terminals concentrated in the nation's Middle Atlantic and Northeast Regions. A thorough job analysis revealed that activities concerned with customer requests and complaints, calling on existing and potential clients, and other face-to-face client interactions were both the most crucial and time-consuming for sales representatives. Additionally, incumbents (N = 127) endorsed the adjective descriptors "friendly," "confident," "dependable," "competitive," "good memory," and "energetic" as being characteristic of the "ideal" sales representative. Homogenous Item Composites (HICs) from the HP! scales were combined to produce a mea- sure (the SPI) that would assess the personality dimensions shown to be important to success in the sales representative job. Correlations, between scores on the SPI and various criteria ranged from .19 (p>.05) to .53 (p>.01) for the total sample. These results are consistent with other research findings that measures of normal personality can successfully be used to predict job performance. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Business & Psychology. Winter1992, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p225-237. 13p.
EXECUTIVES, RAPID prototyping, JOB analysis, JOB qualifications, WORK design, and PERSONALITY tests
Recent interest in the characteristics of effective managers raises the notion that personality factors may be part of the effectiveness syndrome. Modern research in personality systematics makes it possible to refine and extend earlier analyses of this topic. A job analysis of three levels of management in a large trucking company identified the personality characteristics of good managers, as described by peers and subordinates. These managers and a large group of incumbents (n = 372) completed the Hogan Personality inventory (JIPI). Managers were assigned scores reflecting their status in the organization; they also were rated by their supervisors. A subset of HPJ components were significantly associated with the criteria, with correlations ranging from .22 to .66. These components were combined and used in five separate validity studies. The resulting measure was significantly associated with managerial performance in a variety of organizational settings. These results are consistent with the rowing body of evidence suggesting that a coherent set of noncognitive characteristics promotes managerial performance across organizational types. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Wagner, Joachim and von der Schulenburg, J.-Matthias Graf
Small Business Economics. Dec1992, Vol. 4 Issue 4, p315-326. 12p.
TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, NEW product development, INDUSTRIAL research, PRODUCT management, INDUSTRIAL organization (Economic theory), and RAPID prototyping
In discussing the nexus between innovations and market structure it is often argued that industry characteristics (called `opportunities') might play an important role as determinants of innovation, and that simultaneity rather than one-way causality prevails. We consider a three-equation model for innovation, advertising, and concentration. Based on pooled cross-section time-series data for 26 German manufacturing industries we estimate single equation models with and without fixed industry and/or time effects (to control for unobservable industry or time effects, respectively) and simultaneous equation systems including fixed effects, and controlling for extreme cases (`outliers') or not. Furthermore, we use two different measures for innovations, i.e., the percentage of shipments due to new products, and the percentage of firms which classified themselves as innovators. Our results can be summarized as follows: (1) The firm size has no significant effect on innovation. One can, therefore, not conclude from this data set that large firms are more innovative than small ones; (2) unobservable industry effects do matter; (3) the treatment of outliers does matter; (4) simultaneity does matter; (5) the way innovations are measured does matter; (6) different stories could be told based on the results of the systems of interdependent equations estimated. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Economics. 1996, Vol. 63 Issue 1, p41-56. 16p.
PERFECT competition, RAPID prototyping, NEW product development, PRODUCT management, INDUSTRIAL research, MARKET equilibrium, and COMPETITION
We analyze endogenous timing in the switching of technology. Each user chooses when to purchase a new product which embodies new technologies characterized by Marshallian externalities. The technological switch occurs when a large number of users purchase new products. Under complete information, multiple market equilibria exist, and one of the equilibria in which technological switching occurs is efficient. However, if we introduce even a small amount of uncertainty, the switch is delayed in the unique equilibrium under perfect competition, resulting in a loss of social welfare. The market power of a monopolistic supplier of new products alleviates this inefficiency. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
INFORMATION technology, INDUSTRIAL research, PRODUCT management, COMMERCIAL products, RAPID prototyping, and JOINT ventures
The Information Technology (IT) industry is seeing a great increase in the number of alliances between firms. It is important for the providers, customers and sometimes even the government to know the implications of such a development. We consider two competing organizations with differentiated products forming a strategic joint venture to offer a new product which will compete with their existing products. (An example would be the joint venture between Apple and IBM to develop a new operating system.) We focus on the ownership structure of the new product and the strategic re-positioning of the old products in terms of their price, with an emphasis on the latter. We show that the prices of the old products will increase after the introduction of the new product and they will not be taken off the market. We also show that our model unifies the salient aspects of the spatial com- petition and the monopolistic competition approaches of analyzing product differentiation. As a partner's stake in the joint venture increases, its price for the old product shifts further away from the level that will maximize the profit from the old product. However, the overall profit (from the old and new products) increases with the stake in the new product. The resulting feasible set of ownership structures (where both firms are better off by entering the joint venture) shifts towards greater control by the firm with the initial premium product, as the mean reservation price for the new product increases. Initially, the prices of the two products will be set at their respective mean reservation prices (and these will increase after the introduction of the new product). We show the nature of the new prices of the two old products under different scenarios. We show situations where the ordering of the prices of the old products will be maintained, and where it may be changed. The price of the new product will be set at its mean reservation price. When a part of the stake of one of the firms is distributed to a third party, it leads to lower prices for both the products. We discuss generalizations of the model and various areas of potential research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Evaluates the quality of undergraduate education. Problems concerning the raising standards of education; Discussion on the prototyping strategy for undergraduate education; Applications of the prototyping strategy.
MANUFACTURING cells, MANUFACTURING processes, MANUFACTURING execution systems, PRODUCTION planning, PRODUCTION scheduling, RAPID prototyping, BATCH processing, and FLEXIBLE manufacturing systems
A general framework to describe operating policies in manufacturing cells is presented. A policy can be characterized by assigning appropriate values to a set of descriptive parameters. System configuration is described by one set of parameters and operating policies by another. Examples are presented to illustrate the choice of parameter values. The framework forms the basis for a general-purpose discrete-event simulator. This simulator is used to study various operating philosophies under a wide variety of operating environments. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This investigation examined the agreement between job analysis ratings completed by a small committee of subject matter experts (SMEs) and ratings made by a larger sample of field respondents. The results indicated there were very high levels of agreement across six commonly used job analysis rating indices. These findings converge with those in prior studies suggesting that for purposes of obtaining task and KSA ratings, a small committee of SMEs may provide empirical results that agree with those obtained from a larger sample of field respondents. However, cautions are presented for applying a "committee only" strategy in job analysis. Given convergence in conclusions across studies such as the current one thus far, a call for future research which addresses more specific issues is presented. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Presents examples of positive consumer action that pursues the aim of supporting ecological marketing practices. Market communication and consumer preferences for ecological products; Limits of contra-articulation; Positive extension of Hirschman's approach; Buycott action and prototyping.
FARMS, DECISION making, ANIMAL welfare, and AGRICULTURE
Due to increasing empirical information on farm animal welfare since the 1960s, the prospects for sound decisionmaking concerning welfare have improved. This paper describes a strategy to develop a decision-making aid, a decision support system, for assessment of farm-animal welfare based on available scientific knowledge. Such a decision support system allows many factors to be taken into account. It is to be developed according to the Evolutionary Prototyping Method, in which an initial prototype is improved in reiterative updating cycles. This initial prototype has been constructed. It uses hierarchical representations to analyse scientific statements and statements describing the housing system. Welfare is assessed from what is known about the biological needs of the animals, using a welfare model in the form of a tree that contains these needs as welfare components. Each state of need is assessed using welfare relevant attributes of the housing system and weighting factors. Attributes are measurable properties of the housing system. Weighting factors are assigned according to heuristic rules based on the principle of weighting all components (attributes and needs) equally, unless there are strong reasons to do otherwise. Preliminary tests of the prototype indicate that it may be possible to perform assessment of farm-animal welfare in an explicit way and based on empirical findings. The procedure needs to be refined, but its prospects are promising. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Naishlos, Dorit, Nuzman, Joseph, Chau-Wen Tseng, and Vishkin, Uzi
Theory of Computing Systems. Sep/Oct2003, Vol. 36 Issue 5, p521. 32p.
PARALLEL programming and SIMULTANEOUS multithreading processors
Explicit multithreading (XMT) is a parallel programming approach for exploiting on-chip parallelism. XMT introduces a computational framework with (1) a simple programming style that relies on fine-grained PRAM-style algorithms; (2) hardware support for low-overhead parallel threads, scalable load balancing, and efficient synchronization. The missing link between the algorithmic-programming level and the architecture level is provided by the first prototype XMT compiler. This paper also takes this new opportunity to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the interaction between the programming model and the hardware, and enhance its performance where needed, incorporating new optimizations into the XMT compiler. We present a wide range of applications, which written in XMT obtain significant speedups relative to the best serial programs. We show that XMT is especially useful for more advanced applications with dynamic, irregular access patterns, where for regular computations we demonstrate performance gains that scale up to much higher levels than have been demonstrated before for on-chip systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
COMPUTER-aided design, PROTOTYPES, FINITE element method, BONES, SCAFFOLDED instruction, BIOENGINEERING, BONE substitutes, COMPUTED tomography, MINERALS, and TISSUE engineering
Rapid prototyping, automatic image processing (computer-aided design (CAD)) and computer-aided manufacturing techniques are opening new and interesting prospects for medical devices and tissue engineering, especially for hard tissues such as bone. The development of a bone high-resolution scaffold prototype using these techniques is described. The results testify to the fidelity existing between microtomographic reconstruction and CAD. Furthermore, stereolithographic manufacturing of this scaffold, which possesses a high degree of similarity to the starting model as monitored by morphological evaluations (mean diameter 569 +/- 147 microm), represents a promising result for regenerative medicine applications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
MATHEMATICAL optimization, ALGORITHMS, INTEGER programming, OPERATIONS research, INDUSTRIAL engineering, and CUTTING stock problem
The rate at which research ideas can be prototyped is significantly increased when re-useable software components are employed. A mission of the Computational Infrastructure for Operations Research (COIN-OR) initiative is to promote the development and use of re-useable open-source tools for operations research professionals. In this paper, we introduce the COIN-OR initiative and survey recent progress in integer programming that utilizes COIN-OR components. In particular, we present an implementation of an algorithm for finding integer-optimal solutions to a cutting-stock problem. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
BAYESIAN analysis, MARKETS, NEW product development, COMMERCIAL products, PRODUCT lines, RAPID prototyping, INDUSTRIAL research, SUPPLY & demand, and CHOICE (Psychology)
The emergence of Bayesian methodology has facilitated respondent-level conjoint models, and deriving utilities from choice experiments has become very popular among those modeling product line decisions or new product introductions. This review begins with a paradox of why experimental choices should mirror market behavior despite clear differences in content, structure and motivation. It then addresses ways to design the choice tasks so that they are more likely to reflect market choices. Finally, it examines ways to model the results of the choice experiments to better mirror both underlying decision processes and potential market choices. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]