RAPID prototyping, DECISION making, ANALYTIC hierarchy process, GREY relational analysis, FUZZY numbers, and STRENGTH of materials
A multitude of rapid prototyping (RP) systems and technologies have come up since the introduction of additive process. Owing to the enlarging number of these systems with distinctive efficacy, the problem of selecting an appropriate system for a particular requirement is a cumbersome task. Henceforth, this work comes up with a strategy based on multi-attribute decision making to select a most suitable RP system. The presence of subjectivity in decision making as well as the existence of imprecision from various sources emphasize the methods which must consider uncertainty and vagueness. A decision advisor based on uncertainty theories, including fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) and grey relational analysis (GRA) has been introduced. It provides a comprehensive database comprising thirty nine commercially available RP systems. The evaluation attributes consisting of machine cost, accuracy, layer thickness, machine speed, material cost, net build size volume, machine weight, surface roughness, and material strength were utilized to characterize the different machines. The FAHP based on trapezoidal fuzzy number was implemented to determine the priority weights of various attributes, while the GRA was employed to realize the best RP system and technology. The authors believe that this system has the potential to transform into a fully developed RP selection system. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Fosas, Daniel, Moran, Francis, Natarajan, Sukumar, Orr, John, and Coley, David
Building Research & Information. May2020, Vol. 48 Issue 4, p379-400. 22p. 1 Color Photograph, 2 Diagrams, 4 Charts, 7 Graphs, 1 Map.
RAPID prototyping, REFUGEE camps, and DESIGN
More than 9 million people live in shelters globally, often in extremely hot climates. The thermal performance of shelters is often overlooked in the design process, despite being a consideration second only to safety in surveys of camp dwellers. Indeed, indoor temperatures exceeding 40°C have been recorded in previous studies. To aid in improving conditions, the roles building simulation and prototyping could play in forecasting shelter thermal performance as part of a new shelter design process are examined. The thermal performance of prototypes, built in the refugee camp of Azraq, was monitored during the hot season to evaluate four design approaches: (1) "blind" (uncalibrated) models, (2) calibrated models, (3) on-site design-variants and (4) off-site prototypes. These included the original shelter and six design alternatives implementing different overheating countermeasures. The results demonstrate that blind models are sensitive to the judgement of uncertainties but were still qualitatively useful. Model calibration vastly improves the agreement and significantly enhances forecasts of performance for the design alternatives, which remained similar across examined climates. It is therefore concluded that simulation and prototyping, either on-site or off-site, should be adopted within the shelter design process before mass deployment, to create better-living conditions for their dwellers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Ferrari, Ana Lya Moya, Piculo dos Santos, Aline Darc, Bertolaccini, Guilherme da Silva, Medola, Fausto Orsi, and Sandnes, Frode Eika
Ferrari, A.L.M., Piculo dos Santos, A.D., Bertolaccini, G.S., Medola, F.O. & Sandnes, F.E. (2020). Evaluation of orthosis rapid prototyping during the design process: Analysis of verification models. In: M. Di Nicolantonio, E. Rossi & T. Alexander (Eds.), Advances in additive manufacturing, modeling systems and 3D prototyping: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Additive Manufacturing, Modeling Systems and 3D Prototyping, Cham: Springer (pp. 298-307)
This work presents an approach to error compensation in rapid prototyping of parts having circular geometries. The error compensation is carried out by correcting the circular geometry deviations in the CAD model, before sending it to the 3D printer. The experimental work was performed by manufacturing a standard part having cylinders using rapid prototyping. A first part was designed in Catia having as variables the diameter, the height and the inclination angle, settled at three levels each. Manufacturing took place with a STL file and ABS polymeric material and the part was then measured to determine the errors in diameter, height and angle, together with the circularity deviations. A revised CAD model was designed with corrections in circularity and a new part was manufactured and measured. A second part was produced extending to diameters ranging from 10 to 90 mm. Circularity deviations were determined and error compensation was applied in the redesigned part with a confirmation experiment applied. The error correction for circularity, applied over the CAD model, proved successful in conical parts of dimensions from 10 to 90 mm in diameter. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Usó, Vanessa Ghiraldeli, Sandnes, Frode Eika, and Medola, Fausto Orsi
Usó, V.G., Sandnes, F.E. & Medola, F.O. (2020). Using virtual reality and rapid prototyping to co-create together with hospitalized children. In: M. Di Nicolantonio, E. Rossi & T. Alexander (Eds.). Advances in additive manufacturing, modeling systems and 3D prototyping: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Additive Manufacturing, Modeling Systems and 3D Prototyping, 2020 (pp. 279-288) Cham: Springer
RAPID prototyping, WEB services, WEB development, INTERNET of things, and LOGIC devices
The emerging field of Internet of Things (IoT) offers an unprecedented opportunity for a wide spectrum of applications. However, most applications have been integrating IoT devices through proprietary mechanisms and with closed technology stacks. The monolithic, mostly vendor-specific development architecture leads to soaring customization costs and limited component reusability. It impedes the full-fledged IoT applications in cross-organizational, general-purpose and rapid-changing scenarios. This research intends to provide a coherent architecture that enables interoperable, low-cost and user-customizable IoT rapid prototyping. Under this architecture, each IoT component, either a physical device or a control logic, is abstracted into an independent web service that described by a set of transferable states. By concatenating a valid chain of state transfers between web services, IoT components are further assembled into customizable applications. In this research, a Finite-State-Machine (FSM) model driven architecture is established and a typical implementation of the proposed architecture, i.e. the Hyper Sensor Markup Language (HSML) is provided. We also discuss two practical use cases and related evaluations. • IoT development trends and open challenges in rapid prototyping. • Analysis of model driven composition approach and its potential benefits for IoT rapid prototyping. • Possible architecture of FSM model driven IoT rapid prototyping framework and its implementation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
WIRELESS power transmission, RAPID prototyping, RADIO frequency, GOLD coatings, and STAINLESS steel
This article presents an electromagnetically powered stent designed for hyperthermia treatment of in-stent restenosis. The stent device based on medical-grade stainless steel serves as a radio frequency (RF) inductive receiver to produce mild heating wirelessly through resonant-coupling power transfer, while acting as a mechanical scaffold inside an artery similar to commercial stents. The device and its custom transmitter are prototyped and optimized to show efficient wireless power transfer and stent heating through in vitro tests. The inductive stent with its helical pattern is gold coated to achieve a $3.5\times $ higher quality ($Q$) factor, improving heating performance of the device. The combinational use of independent resonant antennas with the power antenna is found to significantly boost stent temperature by up to 96% with an intermediate tissue layer. Upon matching the frequencies at which the $Q$ factors of the inductive stent, power antenna, and booster antenna are peaked, the stent excited through 10 mm-thick tissue exhibits a temperature increase of 18 °C, well over a necessary level for targeted hyperthermia treatment. The prototype achieves heating efficiencies (HEs) of 15.5–3.2 °C/W with a tissue thickness of 5–15 mm. These results indicate that the proposed resonant-heating stent system with the prototyped transmitter is promising for further development toward its clinical application. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction. Apr2020, Vol. 36 Issue 6, p536-552. 17p. 9 Color Photographs, 1 Black and White Photograph, 2 Diagrams, 5 Charts.
USER interfaces (Computer systems), RAPID prototyping, and MESSAGE passing (Computer science)
Different types of devices are used in our daily lives, and each type has its own advantages and disadvantages. Cross-device interaction that involves multiple devices can potentially overcome each device's inherent disadvantages. Without a toolkit, it is time consuming to develop cross-device interaction. Focusing on a horizontal large display (called a tabletop), this paper proposes a generic toolkit for prototyping tabletop-centric cross-device applications that involve a large display and multiple smartphones. In our toolkit, a user uses a smartphone as a look-through lens for browsing and selecting objects on a tabletop, and remotely manipulates the selected object with multimodal feedback. Based on the above interaction style, our toolkit formalizes the development of cross-device interaction as defining a mobile interface on each tabletop interface object. Since our toolkit encapsulates the interface distribution and synchronization through message passing, interface developers can focus on developing cross-device interaction by designing a mobile interface in response to a selected tabletop interface object. In order to demonstrate the versatility and design space of our toolkit, six design issues, i.e., data transfer, personalization, user interface composition, authentication, localized & private feedback, and input expressiveness, were discussed through a set of sample applications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. Sep2019, Vol. 34 Issue 9, p8715-8723. 9p.
RAPID prototyping, CURRENT-voltage characteristics, and FEEDBACK (Electronics)
Using a photovoltaic (PV) emulator (PVE) simplifies the testing of the PV generation system. However, conventional controllers used for PVEs suffer from oscillating output voltage, requiring a high number of iterations, or being too complex to be implemented. This paper proposes a controller based on a resistance feedback control strategy that produces a stable and fast converging operating point for the PVE. The resistance feedback control strategy requires a new type of PV model, which is the current–resistance (I–R) PV model. This model is computed using a binary search method at a fast convergence rate. It is combined with a closed-loop buck converter using a proportional-integral controller to form the resistance feedback control strategy. The PVE's controller is implemented into dSPACE ds1104 hardware platform for experimental validation. The acquired experimental results show that the proposed PVE is able to follow the current–voltage characteristic of the PV module accurately. In addition, the PVE's efficiency is more than 90% under maximum power point operation. The transient response of the proposed PVE is similar to the PV panel during irradiance changes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, SYSTEM integration, SYSTEMS development, INTERNET of things, and SMART cities
Abstract The Internet of Things holds huge promise in enhancing collaboration in multiple application domains. Bringing internet connectivity to everyday objects and environments promotes ubiquitous access to information and integration with third-party systems. Further, connected "things" can be used as physical interfaces to enable users to cooperate, leveraging multiple devices via parallel and distributed actions. Yet creating prototypes of IoT systems is a complex task for developers non-expert in IoT, as it requires dealing with multi-layered hardware and software infrastructures. We introduce RapIoT, a software toolkit that facilitates the prototyping of IoT systems by providing an integrated set of technologies. Our solution abstracts low-level details and communication protocols, allowing developers non-expert in IoT to focus on application logic, facilitating rapid prototyping. RapIoT supports the development of collaborative applications by enabling the definition of high-level data type primitives and allowing interactions spread among multiple smart objects. RapIoT primitives act as a loosely coupled interface between generic IoT devices and applications, simplifying the development of systems that make use of an ecology of devices distributed to multiple users and environments. We illustrate the potential of our toolkit by presenting the development process of an IoT application ideated during a workshop with non-expert developers and addressing real-world challenges affecting smart cities. We conclude by discussing the strength and limitations of our platform, highlighting further possible uses for collaborative applications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Conservation Biology. Dec 2019, Vol. 33 Issue 6, p1448, 3 p.
***** No abstract is available for this article. Article Note: Article impact statement: Web-application development frameworks enable the creation of decision-support tool prototypes for actionable conservation science. CAPTION(S): Table 1. List of web-application development frameworks that might be useful for conservation scientists. Byline: Denis Valle, Kok Ben Toh, Justin Millar
RESEARCH & development, TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, SPECULATIVE fiction, FICTION, and INTERNET of things
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a design fiction diegetic prototyping methodology and research framework for investigating service innovations that reflect future uses of new and emerging technologies. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on speculative fiction, the authors propose a methodology that positions service innovations within a six-stage research development framework. The authors begin by reviewing and critiquing designerly approaches that have traditionally been associated with service innovations and futures literature. In presenting their framework, authors provide an example of its application to the Internet of Things (IoT), illustrating the central tenets proposed and key issues identified. Findings: The research framework advances a methodology for visualizing future experiential service innovations, considering how realism may be integrated into a designerly approach. Research limitations/implications: Design fiction diegetic prototyping enables researchers to express a range of "what if" or "what can it be" research questions within service innovation contexts. However, the process encompasses degrees of subjectivity and relies on knowledge, judgment and projection. Practical implications: The paper presents an approach to devising future service scenarios incorporating new and emergent technologies in service contexts. The proposed framework may be used as part of a range of research designs, including qualitative, quantitative and mixed method investigations. Originality/value: Operationalizing an approach that generates and visualizes service futures from an experiential perspective contributes to the advancement of techniques that enables the exploration of new possibilities for service innovation research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Systems Research & Behavioral Science. Nov2019, Vol. 36 Issue 6, p835-844. 10p.
NEW product development, SYSTEMS design, SYSTEMS theory, COMPUTER graphics, COMPUTER simulation, HUMAN anatomical models (Objects), and PSYCHOPHYSICS
In almost all areas of the industry and more generally in the sector of development of manufacturing products, the realization of the product passes through several successive stages going from the design to the realization of the product. The most critical phase is prototyping because it is at this point that usually the most important decisions are made. In several sectors this step is very expensive, and in any case, the prototype undergoes several modifications and requires several validations before it is definitive for the transition to production. The prototype must generally constitute a model of the product that has all or part of the technical qualities and operating characteristics that must appear in the final product, to demonstrate or affirm the validity of the concept and thus its final validation, which increases the overall cost of the prototyping phase. In the vast majority of prototyping devices available for the moment, be it by additive or subtractive process, the realization of the prototype requires a lot of time, and once the prototype is made, it can only be modified by destructive techniques because the materials used are frozen and do not allow easy reuse. This study proposes a device for the prototyping of product, allowing a modification of the geometry of the prototype by means of a deformable composite membrane with shape memory, reusable and programmable. The device in question consists of a flexible composite membrane whose matrix is a flexible polymer, and the reinforcement is a shape‐memory alloy fibre and rubber effect, having a given electrical resistance. These shape memory fibres are woven in such a way as to ensure deformations in the direction normal to the plane of the membrane by injecting the current into each fibre. This is ensured by a cross weave allowing the control of the direction of the overall deformation through the deformation specific to each fibre. In this research work, we present the results of the modelling and simulation of the behaviour of a composite membrane with shape memory. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]