Conservation Biology. Dec 2019, Vol. 33 Issue 6, p1448, 3 p.
***** No abstract is available for this article. Article Note: Article impact statement: Web-application development frameworks enable the creation of decision-support tool prototypes for actionable conservation science. CAPTION(S): Table 1. List of web-application development frameworks that might be useful for conservation scientists. Byline: Denis Valle, Kok Ben Toh, Justin Millar
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. Sep2019, Vol. 34 Issue 9, p8715-8723. 9p.
RAPID prototyping, CURRENT-voltage characteristics, and FEEDBACK (Psychology)
Using a photovoltaic (PV) emulator (PVE) simplifies the testing of the PV generation system. However, conventional controllers used for PVEs suffer from oscillating output voltage, requiring a high number of iterations, or being too complex to be implemented. This paper proposes a controller based on a resistance feedback control strategy that produces a stable and fast converging operating point for the PVE. The resistance feedback control strategy requires a new type of PV model, which is the current–resistance (I–R) PV model. This model is computed using a binary search method at a fast convergence rate. It is combined with a closed-loop buck converter using a proportional-integral controller to form the resistance feedback control strategy. The PVE's controller is implemented into dSPACE ds1104 hardware platform for experimental validation. The acquired experimental results show that the proposed PVE is able to follow the current–voltage characteristic of the PV module accurately. In addition, the PVE's efficiency is more than 90% under maximum power point operation. The transient response of the proposed PVE is similar to the PV panel during irradiance changes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Plastics Engineering. Oct 2019, Vol. 75 Issue 9, p40, 6 p.
Time to market, Thermoplastics -- Product development, Product development, and 3D printing
The laborious process of product development is changing. The evolution of rapid prototyping, 3D printing, and additive manufacturing will continue to affect the process for the better, developing accurate and [...]
TARGET costing, PROTOTYPES, PRODUCT design, RAPID prototyping, and SUPPLIERS
Prototyping allows firms to evaluate the technical feasibility of alternative product designs and to better estimate their costs. We study a collaborative prototyping scenario in which a manufacturer involves a supplier in the prototyping process by letting the supplier make detailed design choices for critical components and provide prototypes for testing. While the supplier can obtain private information about the costs, the manufacturer uses target costing to gain control over the design choice. We show that involving the supplier in the prototyping process has an important influence on the manufacturer's optimal decisions. The collaboration results in information asymmetry, which makes parallel prototyping less attractive and potentially reverses the optimal testing sequence under sequential prototyping: It may be optimal to test designs in increasing order of attractiveness to avoid that the supplier does not release technically and economically feasible prototypes for strategic reasons. We also find that the classical target costing approaches (cost‐ and market‐based) need to be adjusted in the presence of alternative designs: Due to the strategic behavior of suppliers, it is not always optimal to provide identical target costs for designs with similar cost and performance estimates, nor to provide different target costs for dissimilar designs. Furthermore, the timing is important: While committing upfront to carefully chosen target costs reduces the supplier's strategic behavior, in some circumstances, the manufacturer can take advantage of this behavior by remaining flexible and specifying the second prototype's target costs later. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, SEARCH algorithms, DIELECTRIC-loaded antennas, THREE-dimensional printing, and PERMITTIVITY
A prototyping method for dielectrically loaded antennas is presented. Dielectric loading has been used with horn antennas, feeds, and lenses. Dielectrics have also been used for coating antennas submerged in water and biological matter and have led to improvements in bandwidth and efficiency as well as antenna miniaturisation. The authors present a new technique to produce variable dielectrics with permittivity from 6 to 28 using two commonly available powders, titanium dioxide (used in foods) and magnesium silicate (used in talcum powder). An example spherical helical ball antenna is used to demonstrate the process. In this antenna, the mixed powders were encased in a 3D printed shell that achieved a reduction in diameter of the spherical antenna by a factor of 1.85. The technique aids rapid prototyping and optimisation using search algorithms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This paper presents a discrete-time neural inverse optimal control for induction motors, which is implemented on a rapid control prototyping (RCP) system using a C2000 Microcontroller-Simulink platform. Such controller addresses the solution of three issues: system identification, trajectory tracking, and state estimation, which are solved independently. The neural controller is based on a recurrent high order neural network (RHONN), which is trained with an extended Kalman filter. The RHONN is an identifier to obtain an accurate motor model, which is robust to external disturbances and parameter variations. The inverse optimal controller is used to force the system to track a desired trajectory and to reject undesired disturbances. Moreover, the controller is based on a neural model and does not need the a-priori knowledge of motor parameters. A supertwisting observer is implemented to estimate the rotor magnetic fluxes. The hub of the RCP system is a TMS320f28069M MCU, which is an embedded combination of a 32-bit C28x DSP core and a real-time control accelerator. This Microcontroller is fully programmable from the Simulink environment. Simulation and experimental results illustrate the performance of the proposed controller and the RCP system, and a comparison with a control algorithm without the neural identifier is also included. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Cao Y, Zhang W, Liang Y, Feng Z, Jiang C, Chen Z, and Jiang X
Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England) [Comput Assist Surg (Abingdon)] 2019 Dec; Vol. 24 (1), pp. 1-6. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Jan 21.
It is technically demanding and requires rich experience to insert the translaminar facet screw(TFS) via the paramedian mini-incision approach. It seems that it is easy to place the TFS using computer-assisted design and rapid prototyping(RP) techniques. However, the accuracy and safety of these techniques is still unknown. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy and safety of translaminar facet screw placement in multilevel unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using a rapid prototyping drill guide template system. A patient-matched rapid prototyping translaminar facet screw guide was examined in fourteen cadaveric lumbar spine specimens. A three-dimensional (3D) preoperative screw trajectory was constructed using spinal computed tomography scans, from which individualized guides were developed for the placement of translaminar facet screws. Following bone tunnel establishment, the 3D positioning of the entry point and trajectory of the screws was compared to the preoperative plan as found in the Mimics software.Among 60 trajectories eligible for assessment, no cases of clinically significant laminar perforation were found. The mean deviation between the planned and the actual starting points on spinous process was 1.22 mm. The mean tail and submergence angle deviation was found to be 0.68°and 1.46°, respectively. Among all the deviations, none were found to have any statistical significance. These results indicate that translaminar facet screw placement using the guide system is both accurate and safe.
Policy & Practice. June 2019, Vol. 77 Issue 3, p12, 4 p.
Government regulation, Company business management, Human services -- Laws, regulations and rules, Human services -- Psychological aspects, Pilot projects -- Management, Pilot projects -- Psychological aspects, Policy sciences -- Methods, Policy sciences -- Psychological aspects, and Prototypes (Psychology) -- Analysis
"I didn't know it would take this long, or what the next stepes were. I waited a long time and had to hurry to complete some forms before a deadline. [...]
As relationship marketing research evolved, a number of key constructs emerged. Some scholars have argued that these constructs are not conceptually or empirically distinct. We investigate this phenomenon based on the premise that sustained research effort towards studying conceptually overlapping/redundant constructs, while treating them as independent, can hamper the development of the field. We use prototyping, a method adopted from psychology, to examine consumers’ views of these constructs, and then identify relationship contexts where constructs are distinct or redundant. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Orabona GD, Abbate V, Maglitto F, Committeri U, Improta G, Bonavolontà P, Reccia A, Somma T, Iaconetta G, and Califano L
The Journal Of Craniofacial Surgery [J Craniofac Surg] 2019 Oct; Vol. 30 (7), pp. 2057-2060.
Zygomatic fractures account for 10% to 15% of all facial fractures. The surgical management of isolated zygomatic arch fractures usually requires open reduction treatment without fixation through an intraoral access. Therefore, the main problem in the non-fixed treatment of zygomatic arch fractures is related to the difficulty in obtaining a stable reduction for a period long enough to guarantee the physiological bone healing process. We propose an innovative "in-house" rapid prototyping (RP) protocol for the 3D-zygoma mask manufacture of a patient-specific protective device to apply after zygomatic arch fracture reduction. Our study includes 16 consecutive patients who underwent surgical open reduction for an isolated zygoma fracture without fixation between January 2017 and February 2018. The patients received regular postoperative checks at weeks 1 and 2. Before the device was removed, a multiple choice questionnaire was administered to measure the degree of wearability of the mask. The estimated cost of the production is around &OV0556;5 per case and the construction time is around 90 minutes. Based on the encouraging results, obtained in our experience, we hope that other studies can be conducted to confirm our procedure and improve its functionality in the field of facial trauma.
Abbate V, Iaconetta G, Califano L, Pansini A, Bonavolontà P, Romano A, Salzano G, Somma T, D'Andrea L, and Dell'Aversana Orabona G
The Journal Of Craniofacial Surgery [J Craniofac Surg] 2019 Oct; Vol. 30 (7), pp. 2106-2110.
Background: Restoring the orbital cavity integrity in orbital floor defects is a challenging issue due to the anatomical complexity of the floor's surface. This is a showcase for technical description of a novel "in house" rapid prototyping protocol aimed to customize implant for orbital floor reconstruction. Methods: The authors present 4 cases to show our Computer-aided-design and Computer-aided-manufacturing digital workflow. The system was based on a 3D-printed press that; through a virtually designed mold, was used to conform a patient specific titanium mesh for orbital floor reconstruction. Results: The merging procedure analysis by iPlan Cranial 3.0 (Brainlab, Munich, Germany) highlighted a 0.71 ± 0.23 mm (P <0.05) discrepancy in a point-to-point superimposition between the digital planned reconstruction and the real in vivo result. Conclusions: The authors expect that this technique will reduce operative time and cost however further study and larger series may better define the applicability in everyday surgical practice.
Medlej, Maroun, Stuban, Steven M. F., and Dever, Jason R.
Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Oct2017, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p626-655. 30p.
SYSTEMS engineering, RAPID prototyping, DEFENSE industries, MANUFACTURING processes, and LIKELIHOOD ratio tests
In 2007, John Young, then-Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, mandated the use of "competitive prototyping" strategies in defense acquisition. Further, Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02 includes considerations for prototyping in the acquisition strategy. A 2017 memorandum circulated by Young lists five prototyping benefits, which are expected to "reduce technical risk, validate designs, validate cost estimates, evaluate manufacturing processes, and refine requirements." However, a process to assess whether, and to what extent, a prototype will be or has been successful in achieving these benefits is not currently in use by the Department of Defense. Because cost increases and schedule extension downsides are inherent in prototyping, such an assessment is critical. This research proposes an approach for assessing the likelihood of achieving expected prototyping benefits based on identifying the factors yielding these benefits as well as their relative weights. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]