RAPID prototyping, DECISION making, ANALYTIC hierarchy process, GREY relational analysis, FUZZY numbers, and STRENGTH of materials
A multitude of rapid prototyping (RP) systems and technologies have come up since the introduction of additive process. Owing to the enlarging number of these systems with distinctive efficacy, the problem of selecting an appropriate system for a particular requirement is a cumbersome task. Henceforth, this work comes up with a strategy based on multi-attribute decision making to select a most suitable RP system. The presence of subjectivity in decision making as well as the existence of imprecision from various sources emphasize the methods which must consider uncertainty and vagueness. A decision advisor based on uncertainty theories, including fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) and grey relational analysis (GRA) has been introduced. It provides a comprehensive database comprising thirty nine commercially available RP systems. The evaluation attributes consisting of machine cost, accuracy, layer thickness, machine speed, material cost, net build size volume, machine weight, surface roughness, and material strength were utilized to characterize the different machines. The FAHP based on trapezoidal fuzzy number was implemented to determine the priority weights of various attributes, while the GRA was employed to realize the best RP system and technology. The authors believe that this system has the potential to transform into a fully developed RP selection system. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
de Lima, Luiz Felipe Souza, Paes de Barros, Anna Júlia Brandão, de Cássia Martini, Andresa, Stocco, Matias Bassinello, Kuczmarski, Antonio Henrique, and de Souza, Roberto Lopes
Ciência Rural. 2019, Vol. 49 Issue 12, p1-4. 4p.
PHOTOGRAMMETRY, RAPID prototyping, THREE-dimensional printing, ORTHOPEDICS, and LABORATORY animals
Rapid prototyping (RP) is an innovative technology that allows one to obtain a prototype of a mold quickly and accurately from a virtual model. This study aimed to establish the use of photogrammetry and 3D prototyping for the production of bone biomodels of the canine species for training in orthopedic techniques in veterinary medicine. Virtual bio-modelling was performed by the photogrammetry technique with commercial anatomical pieces, and physical biomodelling was performed by 3D printing. Osteotomies were performed on the biomodels that served as platforms for osteosynthesis of the femur and ileum, and the final product was not associated with a risk of biological contamination, was able to support special orthopedic materials, and was used for training and surgical planning. We concluded that the use of photogrammetry and RP for the production of bone biomodels of the canine species enabled techniques for fracture reduction to be performed with the use of special instruments, enabling training in the area of veterinary orthopedics in an economically viable manner with an alternative to experimental animals. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Nowadays, 3-D printing technology is very often applied in industry due to design cycles shortening and surface quality improvement when comparing to conventional manufacturing technologies. In order to adapt 3-D printed materials as thermal barriers, it is necessary to determine its thermophysical properties. As far as thermal insulation is concerned, the lowest thermal conductivity is required and therefore the crucial parameter of the material is the porosity. This paper presents the results of experimental investigation of effective thermal conductivity of thermal barriers with variable porosity fabricated by the fused filament fabrication technology. Also the numerical study was presented. The commercial code - COMSOL multiphysics was used to model the coupled heat transfer. The model was than validated by comparing the numerical and experimental results. For each sample the density and thermal conductivity were determined experimentally. The influence of the size and shape of the cell on the formation of free convection was investigated in particular. The effect of the conduction and radiation on temperature and velocity profiles within the enclosure has been analyzed. In addition, the dominant heat transfer mechanisms as a function of density have been identified. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Robinson, Christopher J., Carbonell, Pablo, Jervis, Adrian J., Yan, Cunyu, Hollywood, Katherine A., Dunstan, Mark S., Currin, Andrew, Swainston, Neil, Spiess, Reynard, Taylor, Sandra, Mulherin, Paul, Parker, Steven, Rowe, William, Matthews, Nicholas E., Malone, Kirk J., Le Feuvre, Rosalind, Shapira, Philip, Barran, Perdita, Turner, Nicholas J., and Micklefield, Jason
RAPID prototyping, MONOMERS, MANUFACTURING processes, and SYNTHETIC biology
Bio-based production of industrial chemicals using synthetic biology can provide alternative green routes from renewable resources, allowing for cleaner production processes. To efficiently produce chemicals on-demand through microbial strain engineering, biomanufacturing foundries have developed automated pipelines that are largely compound agnostic in their time to delivery. Here we benchmark the capabilities of a biomanufacturing pipeline to enable rapid prototyping of microbial cell factories for the production of chemically diverse industrially relevant material building blocks. Over 85 days the pipeline was able to produce 17 potential material monomers and key intermediates by combining 160 genetic parts into 115 unique biosynthetic pathways. To explore the scale-up potential of our prototype production strains, we optimized the enantioselective production of mandelic acid and hydroxymandelic acid, achieving gram-scale production in fed-batch fermenters. The high success rate in the rapid design and prototyping of microbially-produced material building blocks reveals the potential role of biofoundries in leading the transition to sustainable materials production. Image 1 • An automated biomanufacturing pipeline is benchmarked for the production of material monomers. • Over 85 days, 160 genes were screened for activity, assembled into 115 unique pathways and tested for in vivo production. • E. coli production strains were successfully constructed to produce 17 target compounds at competitive titers. • Scale-up potential is demonstrated through enantioselective production of mandelic acid targets at gram-scale in bioreactors. • The high success rate demonstrates the capabilities of biofoundries to rapidly prototype microbial production strains. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Menold, Jessica, Simpson, Timothy W., and Jablokow, Kathryn
Research in Engineering Design. Apr2019, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p187-201. 15p.
DESIGN failures, RAPID prototyping, FACTORIAL experiment designs, PROTOTYPES, NEW product development, and SUNK costs
Prototypes have been identified as critical artifacts for generating and developing innovative products and thus stimulating economic growth. However, prototyping is also associated with a large sunk cost including the extensive time and resources required to make physical prototypes. While a wide variety of prototyping methods have been proposed to reduce the cost and time of prototype development and increase the likelihood of final product success, the majority of research to date has explored the impact of these methods using simplistic measures of the technical performance of a design. Just as it is not enough to measure the effectiveness of ideation methods only by the quantity of ideas produced, we argue that it is not enough to measure the effectiveness of prototyping frameworks through technical performance alone. Without this fundamental knowledge, we cannot understand the impact of prototyping methods on final design success or failure. Therefore, the purpose in this work is to explore the effects of a structured prototyping framework on a variety of design attributes, including user satisfaction, perceived value, technical quality, and ease of manufacturability. Specifically, the overarching research question this study seeks to answer is: what attributes of a final design are affected by the implementation of a prototyping framework? A partial factorial experimental design was used to collect data from designs produced by 77 student design teams; designs were analyzed using five robust product metrics derived from the literature. Results indicate that a structured prototyping framework can lead to improved overall design quality and that differences in the implementation of such a prototyping framework can affect the achievement of these design attributes. The findings of this work deepen our understanding of the relationship between prototyping methods and design refinement during the product development process. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
WIRELESS power transmission, RAPID prototyping, RADIO frequency, GOLD coatings, and STAINLESS steel
This article presents an electromagnetically powered stent designed for hyperthermia treatment of in-stent restenosis. The stent device based on medical-grade stainless steel serves as a radio frequency (RF) inductive receiver to produce mild heating wirelessly through resonant-coupling power transfer, while acting as a mechanical scaffold inside an artery similar to commercial stents. The device and its custom transmitter are prototyped and optimized to show efficient wireless power transfer and stent heating through in vitro tests. The inductive stent with its helical pattern is gold coated to achieve a $3.5\times $ higher quality ($Q$) factor, improving heating performance of the device. The combinational use of independent resonant antennas with the power antenna is found to significantly boost stent temperature by up to 96% with an intermediate tissue layer. Upon matching the frequencies at which the $Q$ factors of the inductive stent, power antenna, and booster antenna are peaked, the stent excited through 10 mm-thick tissue exhibits a temperature increase of 18 °C, well over a necessary level for targeted hyperthermia treatment. The prototype achieves heating efficiencies (HEs) of 15.5–3.2 °C/W with a tissue thickness of 5–15 mm. These results indicate that the proposed resonant-heating stent system with the prototyped transmitter is promising for further development toward its clinical application. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Northeastern University (Natural Science). 2018, Vol. 39 Issue 8, p1132-1136. 5p.
RAPID prototyping, SCANNING electron microscopy, GRAIN farming, TENSILE tests, FRACTOGRAPHY, and ALLOYS
Microstructures and mechanical properties of laser rapid prototyping deposited TC4 alloy in the parallel and vertical directions were studied by metallographic microscope， scanning electron microscopy and electronic tensile testing machine. The results showed that the β grains growing in the deposited direction are coarse and columnar， which shows a bright and dark strip structure and is typical Widmanstatten structure. The strength vertical to deposition direction is higher than that parallel with deposition direction， but the plasticity is low. The fracture of the alloy is dimple fracture， and the size of the dimples on the fracture vertical to deposition direction is smaller than that parallel with deposition direction. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This study’s objective was to determine the accuracy of using current computed tomography (CT) scan and software techniques for rapid prototyping by quantifying the margin of error between CT models and laser scans of canine skull specimens. Twenty canine skulls of varying morphology were selected from an anatomy collection at a veterinary school. CT scans (bone and standard algorithms) were performed for each skull, and data segmented (testing two lower threshold settings of 226HU and -650HU) into 3-D CT models. Laser scans were then performed on each skull. The CT models were compared to the corresponding laser scan to determine the error generated from the different types of CT model parameters. This error was then compared between the different types of CT models to determine the most accurate parameters. The mean errors for the 226HU CT models, both bone and standard algorithms, were not significant from zero error (p = 0.1076 and p = 0.0580, respectively). The mean errors for both -650HU CT models were significant from zero error (p < 0.001). Significant differences were detected between CT models for 3 CT model comparisons: Bone (p < 0.0001); Standard (p < 0.0001); and -650HU (p < 0.0001). For 226HU CT models, a significant difference was not detected between CT models (p = 0.2268). Independent of the parameters tested, the 3-D models derived from CT imaging accurately represent the real skull dimensions, with CT models differing less than 0.42 mm from the real skull dimensions. The 226HU threshold was more accurate than the -650HU threshold. For the 226HU CT models, accuracy was not dependent on the CT algorithm. For the -650 CT models, bone was more accurate than standard algorithms. Knowing the inherent error of this procedure is important for use in 3-D printing for surgical planning and medical education. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
ACADEMIC libraries, MANUFACTURING processes, LIBRARIANS, and LIBRARIES
Prototyping is an incremental process that facilitates those looking to make changes in products, services, or resources. Originating in industrial fabrication process, prototyping can be adapted by librarians to examine changes made to library services, amenities, and resources. They offer a cost-effective way of trying something new and needed, to ensure that patron needs are met. This article modifies prototyping into a five-step process and reviews five examples where the Lee Library used prototyping to inform library decisions to inform the development of library services, amenities, processes, and resources to better serve its patrons. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Xie, Jiacheng, Yang, Zhaojian, Wang, Xuewen, and Lai, Xiaonan
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. Feb2019, Vol. 100 Issue 5-8, p1475-1490. 16p.
CLOUD computing, THREE-dimensional printing, RAPID prototyping, MANUFACTURING processes, and RESEARCH & development
This research work has been completed by concentrating on the structure of inserts for foot orthosis fabricated by utilizing rapid prototyping technology. Thermoplastic elastomer and thermoplastic polyurethane are the most commonly used materials that are being used in customized three-dimensional printed orthotic insoles, which are comfortable and prevent the user in many foot disorders. Thermo-softening viscoelastic polymers, explicitly Filaflex and Ninjaflex, have been printed by utilizing Flash Forge three-dimensional printers to evaluate the mechanical properties of specimens with alterations of the percentage rate fill-up design replicas. The results are compared on the basis of hardness test, flexural/bending test, and tensile test using Durometer and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). It has also been observed that the most significant effecting factor is infill density. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]