Design Issues. Spring2018, Vol. 34 Issue 2, p20-30. 11p. 3 Black and White Photographs.
DESIGN science, USER-centered system design, ART history, SWEDISH art, DESIGN equipment, and DESIGN
The article examines how notions of "use" and "user" came into Swedish Modern design. It provides a detailed account of the Home Research Institute in the 1940s, which addressed conditions and practices of housework through ethnographic and time studies, as well as design oriented methods, such as prototyping and testing of domestic tools and products. It articulate how justice, representation, and power underpin the tradition of Swedish user-centered design. It discusses how different socio-political ideals can be implicit in most common design methods.
TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, WORKMANSHIP, PRODUCT quality, PROTOTYPES, INDUSTRIAL design, and DESIGN
In this article, the authors argue that innovation in design is derived from the culture of artisanship. Taking as its focus an analysis of the evolution of Italian design, the article discusses the role that artisanship plays in improving the quality and success of design products. It is argued that artisanship is part of a complex system of production in which it plays the dual role of exploring new ideas via small scale prototyping and the role of cooperating through specific competences with industrial production.
NEW product development, MANUFACTURING processes, SOCIAL networks, SERVICES for older people, DESIGN, and SUSTAINABILITY
The article discusses the strategic and methodological aspects of design. Issues related to sustainability are addressed, in the context of the history of developments since the industrial revolution. Three relevant case studies are cited, including a meal service for the elderly, a lunch courier service for city workers, and a local social networking service for older people. These design projects are analyzed in terms of their product architectures, subdivisions of labor, and reproducability. Design challenges are described, and the use of techniques such as reverse engineering and rapid prototyping is discussed.