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Robinson, Douglas K.R., Lagnau, Axel, and Boon, Wouter P.C.
Technological Forecasting & Social Change. Sept, 2019, Vol. 146, 733
3D printing -- Methods and Evolution -- Methods
Keywords Branching path; Trajectory; Innovation pathways; Paradigm; Industry scenario; Meso-level Highlights * New technology fields can be represented as paths that build momentum, fork and evolve. * Forecasting Innovation Pathways (FIP) require a further developed theory of path emergence and evolution. * 3D printing can be represented by a dominant design: a tri-partite configuration that is filled in a variety of ways. * 3D printing is a field which evolved first around prototyping applications and has branched out to new applications. * The interplay of foreseen applications and the filling of the tri-partite schema motivate branching from rapid prototyping. Abstract In recent years, the Forecasting Innovation Pathway approach (FIP) has shown to be a promising set of tools to capture potential developments in emerging fields through capturing indications of endogenous futures. However, the FIP approach is reliant on a clear demarcated area to study, a challenge for emerging technology fields where uncertainty and rhetoric abound. This paper presents an addition to the FIP toolbox that helps characterise and demarcate boundaries of emerging fields to allow for deeper analysis through other FIP methods. We illustrate this approach through an exercise for 3D printing technology (also known as Additive Manufacturing). We show that 3D printing can be represented by a dominant design: a tri-partite configuration of printer, material and digital design software. In the past decade we have seen significant branching from applications in rapid-prototyping to medical, fashion, aeronautics and supply chain management with a variety of elements coming together in tri-partite configurations. The paper adds to the current FTA literature an approach building on evolutionary theories of technical change to help with such situations -- emerging, evolving and branching 'innovation pathways'. Moreover, we developed a methodology to construct these innovation paths. Author Affiliation: (a) Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences Innovations Societes (LISIS), CNRS (UMR 9003), IFRIS, Universite Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallee, France (b) Institute for Innovation and Public Purpose, University College London, UK (c) Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Netherlands * Corresponding author at: Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences Innovations Societes (LISIS), CNRS (UMR 9003), IFRIS, Universite Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallee, France. Article History: Received 31 January 2018; Revised 4 June 2018; Accepted 11 July 2018 Byline: Douglas K.R. Robinson [firstname.lastname@example.org] (a,b,*), Axel Lagnau (a), Wouter P.C. Boon (c)
Medlej, Maroun, Stuban, Steven M. F., and Dever, Jason R.
Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Oct2017, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p626-655. 30p.
SYSTEMS engineering, RAPID prototyping, DEFENSE industries, MANUFACTURING processes, and LIKELIHOOD ratio tests
In 2007, John Young, then-Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, mandated the use of "competitive prototyping" strategies in defense acquisition. Further, Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02 includes considerations for prototyping in the acquisition strategy. A 2017 memorandum circulated by Young lists five prototyping benefits, which are expected to "reduce technical risk, validate designs, validate cost estimates, evaluate manufacturing processes, and refine requirements." However, a process to assess whether, and to what extent, a prototype will be or has been successful in achieving these benefits is not currently in use by the Department of Defense. Because cost increases and schedule extension downsides are inherent in prototyping, such an assessment is critical. This research proposes an approach for assessing the likelihood of achieving expected prototyping benefits based on identifying the factors yielding these benefits as well as their relative weights. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bare PCBs are the foundation of any electronic device. With the increasing role of electronics in everyday life, including mobile phones, self-driving and electric cars, home automation and especially IoT, [...]
Rapid Prototyping of Biomaterials: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive review of established and emerging rapid prototyping technologies (such as bioprinting) for medical applications. Rapid prototyping, also known as layer manufacturing, additive manufacturing, solid freeform fabrication, or 3D printing, can be used to create complex structures and devices for medical applications from solid, powder, or liquid precursors. Following a useful introduction, which provides an overview of the field, the book explores rapid prototyping of nanoscale biomaterials, biosensors, artificial organs, and prosthetic limbs. Further chapters consider the use of rapid prototyping technologies for the processing of viable cells, scaffolds, and tissues. With its distinguished editor and international team of renowned contributors, Rapid Prototyping of Biomaterials is a useful technical resource for scientists and researchers in the biomaterials and tissue regeneration industry, as well as in academia.Comprehensive review of established and emerging rapid prototyping technologies (such as bioprinting) for medical applicationsChapters explore rapid prototyping of nanoscale biomaterials, biosensors, artificial organs, and prosthetic limbsExamines the use of rapid prototyping technologies for the processing of viable cells, scaffolds, and tissues
PROTOTYPES, INDUSTRIAL design, ENGINEERING design, TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, and NEW product development
Prototyping can be seen as the heart of the innovation process. Typically, engineers and designers both work on prototyping activities, but their diverse backgrounds make for different perspectives on prototyping. Based on earlier literature, this study investigates commonalities and differences in the prototyping behavior of engineers and designers. For this study, semi‐structured interviews and workshops with different experiments were conducted. Using low‐fidelity prototypes, our results indicated that there are differences in the early phase of prototyping. Engineers focused on the features and functions of a prototype and needed to meet specific goals in order to push the process forward. Designers, on the other hand, used prototypes to investigate the design space for new possibilities, and were more open to a variety of prototyping materials and tools, especially for low‐fidelity prototypes. In the later prototyping phases, the prototyping behaviors of engineers and designers became similar. Our study contributes to the understanding of prototyping purposes, activities, and processes across disciplines, and supports the management of prototyping in new product development processes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Information Services & Use. 2016, Vol. 35 Issue 1/2, p71-75. 5p. 2 Color Photographs, 1 Black and White Photograph.
RAPID prototyping, INFORMATION technology, TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, and BUSINESS partnerships
To build a platform for (high, sustainable) use, we need to know what will thrill users. Finding the right concoction of technology, functionality and design to delight users takes a thousand decisions, pivots and changes. The JSTOR Labs team has been using Flash Builds -- high-intensity, short-burst, user-driven development efforts -- in order to prototype new ideas and get to a user saying "Wow" in as little as a week. In this paper, a distillation of a presentation I gave at NFAIS 2015, I will describe how we have done this, highlighting the partnerships, skills, tools and content that help us innovate. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
MAGNETIC resonance imaging, RADIO frequency, HIGH resolution imaging, LASER beam cutting, and HUMAN body
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful imaging modality in clinics and is essential for the diagnosis of strokes through carotid artery imaging. The limiting factor for high-quality MRI is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance of the radio frequency (RF) coils. The current RF surface coils, however, are made of rigid or semiflexible materials with very limited bending properties. As a result, their SNR is limited because they cannot be placed very close to the imaging area, thus receiving noises from parts of the human body, which are not intended to be imaged. Taking advantage of the computerized embroidery and laser cutting technology, in this paper, we utilize electrotextile to design, fabricate, and measure multilayer RF coil array system for 3 Tesla (3T) MRI to improve the SNR performance. The proposed RF coil array system provides an ergonomic and high-performance solution to the 3T MRI systems. A roadmap to systematically design electrotextile RF coil arrays is proposed. RF coil array is characterized to have the accurate resonant frequency, good impedance matching, and low mutual coupling. In addition, magnetic field distribution, bending effects, and human body effects are also discussed. A systematic method to characterize the performance of the electrotextile pattern is studied and used to assist the development and performance characterization. Finally, the high resolution and high SNR images of various kinds of phantoms are obtained using the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Antenna Lab electrotextile coil array after its integration with the 3T MRI scanners at UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine Translational Research Imaging Center. Compared with the conventional surface coil, more than 10 dB SNR increase is observed at the depth of 0.5 cm and 3 dB increase at the depth of 3 cm. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]