Andersson, Jennie, Palmgren, Marianne, and Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering
Design and Technology Education. 22(1):1-16
Humanities and the Arts, Arts, Design, Humaniora och konst, Konst, Natural Sciences, Computer and Information Sciences, Human Computer Interaction, Naturvetenskap, Data- och informationsvetenskap, Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign), Design Education, Information Design, Prototyping, Novice designer, Bodily involvement, and Learning by Experiencing
In information design education, we strive to find methods that provide students with opportunities to explore different ways of learning and designing. We seek to support development of contextual competences that will be helpful in navigating an unknown future of design in society. A challenge in today's design education is to formulate and use methods that support design students in developing competencies in the space between basic form training and context-rich training. The aim of this study was to evaluate prototyping exercises in design education where the focus was in that in-between space. The study is based on 33 prototyping workshops done between 2008 and 2015 and involving 160 students and two design teachers. Four different approaches to prototyping exercises are described, examined and evaluated: "spatial prototyping," "multi-material prototyping," "physical prototyping," and a mix between the latter two, "physical multi-material prototyping." The results show that the prototyping exercises did support the learning of diverse competencies in the in-between space of basic form training and context training. However, the exercises were also counterproductive and met with different kinds of resistance. The results of the study invite to a dialogue on how different prototyping techniques can stimulate learning in relation to future design competences.
As relationship marketing research evolved, a number of key constructs emerged. Some scholars have argued that these constructs are not conceptually or empirically distinct. We investigate this phenomenon based on the premise that sustained research effort towards studying conceptually overlapping/redundant constructs, while treating them as independent, can hamper the development of the field. We use prototyping, a method adopted from psychology, to examine consumers’ views of these constructs, and then identify relationship contexts where constructs are distinct or redundant. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Medlej, Maroun, Stuban, Steven M. F., and Dever, Jason R.
Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Oct2017, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p626-655. 30p.
SYSTEMS engineering, RAPID prototyping, DEFENSE industries, MANUFACTURING processes, and LIKELIHOOD ratio tests
In 2007, John Young, then-Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, mandated the use of "competitive prototyping" strategies in defense acquisition. Further, Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02 includes considerations for prototyping in the acquisition strategy. A 2017 memorandum circulated by Young lists five prototyping benefits, which are expected to "reduce technical risk, validate designs, validate cost estimates, evaluate manufacturing processes, and refine requirements." However, a process to assess whether, and to what extent, a prototype will be or has been successful in achieving these benefits is not currently in use by the Department of Defense. Because cost increases and schedule extension downsides are inherent in prototyping, such an assessment is critical. This research proposes an approach for assessing the likelihood of achieving expected prototyping benefits based on identifying the factors yielding these benefits as well as their relative weights. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Humanities and the Arts, Arts, Design, Humaniora och konst, Konst, design, prototyping, wicked problems, problem-setting, messy contexts, and Designdriven och gestaltande kunskapsproduktion
This paper explores how designers’ core competencies relate to the emerging paradigmatic shift in design practice, and provides suggestions for design education. The shift is due to the increased interest from design in engaging with social and political contexts and issues the last fifteen years. Designers have several core competencies and in this paper prototyping and thereby the capacity to work with wicked problems are explored. More explicitly, we suggest that designers can design relevant propositions with the help of successive prototyping. Tightly integrating designing propositions with problem setting is necessary when dealing with wicked problems. This works well when designers deal with signs and things. However, in order to deal with increasingly complex contexts, we suggest that design students should get more relevant experience of prototyping in complex contexts and improved reflection by making use of theories from STS in order to deal with these complex contexts.
ECONOMIC impact, RAPID prototyping, PRODUCT design, RESEARCH & development, INNOVATIONS in business, and ENGINEERING students
Abstract: Research and development laboratories in universities and firms around the world try to maximize innovation with a limited set of resources. However, questions remain about the influence of resource constraints on idea generation in early-stage product design. Multiple embedded case studies were conducted with engineering students and faculty at two university campuses in Mexico. Students developed sketches for products that would satisfy an open-ended design problem in a constrained-resource setting, where the variables were the timing of when information about these constraints was revealed, and the regular prototyping environment of the student. The evidence suggests that the timing of awareness of constraints can have an impact on design outcomes, but that this effect varies depending on the designer's regular prototyping resource environment. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Jan2018, Vol. 25 Issue 1, p2-29. 28p.
TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, COMMAND of troops, MILITARY technology, and DISRUPTIVE technologies
The Department of Defense (DoD) has recently launched several initiatives to accelerate technological innovation and sustain the U.S. military's technological leadership in an environment of increasing global competition. These include six new or expanded programs to enhance the use of experimentation and prototyping under the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the military services. This study examines the six programs and compares their features in light of historical case studies of past disruptive military innovations and the success factors that enabled these innovations to progress from idea to prototype to fielded military capability. Best practices are identified that can be shared between the six programs, or implemented in the design of new DoD initiatives to promote and secure U.S. technological dominance on the battlefields of tomorrow. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för maskin- och materialteknik, Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap, Borgström, H., Harlin, P., Olsson, M., Paiar, T., Wang, Yu, and Nyborg, L.
Materials Science & Engineering. 475(1-2):34-38
Engineering and Technology, Materials Engineering, Teknik och teknologier, Materialteknik, powder metallurgy, high speed steel, starch consolidation, prototyping, SLPS, and review
In the starch consolidation (SC) process, a water-based slurry containing powder, starch, dispersant and thickener is used to fabricate near net-shape green bodies that are de-binded and further consolidated by sintering. In this study, gas atomized M3/2 as well as high and low carbon V-rich M4 type high speed steel powder (<150 mu m) are considered, Both material types undergo high volumetric shrinkage during super-solidus liquid phase sintering enabling them to reach near full density. The analyses and the review cover different process aspects like: recipe optimisation, post-gelatinization drying, de-binding and sintering. A SC recipe consisting of 58 vol.% powder, 3 vol.% starch, 1 vol.% dispersant and a thickener solution resulted in a density of >98% than what is theoretically stated after sintering. It is found that the success of the post-gelatinization drying procedure depends on the smoothness of mould material and controlling powder oxidation. The best combination was freeze drying the slurry in a silicon rubber mould. For V-rich alloys a total or partial control of eutectic carbides in the final microstructure could be realized for vacuum and nitrogen sintering atmospheres, respectively.
In order to investigate how the use of robots may impact everyday tasks, twelve participants in our study interacted with a University of Hertfordshire Sunflower robot over a period of 8 weeks in the university's Robot House. Participants performed two constrained tasks, one physical and one cognitive, four times over this period. Participant responses were recorded using a variety of measures including the System Usability Scale and the NASA Task Load Index. The use of the robot had an impact on the experienced workload of the participants diﬀerently for the two tasks, and this eﬀect changed over time. In the physical task, there was evidence of adaptation to the robot's behavior. For the cognitive task, the use of the robot was experienced as more frustrating in the later weeks. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]