A direct-slicing approach might improve the accuracy and quality of small, complex parts produced with rapid prototyping technology. An application software based on direct slicing for rapid prototyping was used on the foundation of PowerSHAPE models. Lines, conic arcs and cubic bezier curves were adopted as the basic elements describing the direct-slicing contours. Moreover, a scheme to carry out subdivided software development was proposed. A picture (PIC) format file was selected as an interface for the slicing data, and a macro-AutoSection software, which collects the direct-slicing contour data of arbitrary complex computer-aided design models and provides power to produce the direct-slicing PIC files, was developed. On the above basis, an application software called PDSlice based on direct-slicing data processing was developed for the commercial selective laser sintering machine HRPS-III, which was made at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), P. R. China. The major input and output interfaces as well as the PIC model reconstruction method of the PDSlice are described. Furthermore, a batch of direct-slicing polymer parts were successfully fabricated with the selective laser sintering machine. The application example shows that the accuracy and surface finish of three-dimensional complex curvature surface parts fabricated with the application software system based on a direct-slicing format were better than the application software system based on a stereolithography (STL) format. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The article informs that rapid prototyping plays a critical role in the development of various consumer products. One might think that with today's high-end computer-aided design systems and high-resolution display screens, a product can be designed and assembled correctly in virtual space, then communicated to a factory and mass-produced at the touch of a button. Product development today always keeps the consumer in mind. In focus groups, ideation groups, and ethnography studies, the invited participants prefer to see and feel real products, not just look at computer-generated images. To refine the feel of a product, its ergonomic aspects must be evaluated, including the position and shape of handgrips, buttons, screens, dials, and ports. The overall development cycle is short. Creating a prototype--or rather a series of prototypes--is critical. Some markets change so quickly that toy makers in particular create two models--one that "works like" and one that "looks like"--before compressing all design considerations and iterations into a single footprint and launching into mass production in late summer.
International Journal of Production Research. 1/20/2002, Vol. 40 Issue 2, p293-310. 18p. 16 Diagrams.
RAPID prototyping, COMPUTER-aided design, PROTOTYPES, FINITE element method, CAD/CAM systems, and LITHOGRAPHY
Rapid prototyping (RP) is an emerging, non-traditional fabrication method and has been recognized as a valid tool to shorten the lead-time from design to manufacture effectively. Most of the current RP systems adopt the triangular meshes of stereolithoraphy (STL) as a standard format for data input. Thus, the construction of triangular meshes directly affects the quality of RP parts and their subsequent processes. Traditionally, STL data are output from 3D CAD models built using commercial 3D CAD/CAM software packages. This study, however, differs from the traditional way in that it generates the STL data directly from scanned 3D data points, thus preventing various problems associated with 3D CAD modelling from a large quantity of data points. Specific tasks involved in this study include: (1) development of the methodology to convert massive data points into numerous, connected triangular meshes, (2) determination of unit normal vector for each triangular mesh facet, (3) output of triangular meshes with normal vectors in STL format, and (4) slicing of triangular-mesh model into a series of 2D sections. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Current methods for rapid prototyping of composite products, applied by a computer during manufacturing, allow for materializing even the most complex 3D objects created in a CAD application in a very short time and without any subsequent processing. After determining the validity of a designed prototype, it can be physically implemented using standard methods or tools for plastic injection molding. This paper presents application of commercial CAD programming packages in modelling 3D objects for rapid implementation of composite prototypes using layer-by-layer method. This specific method, in which the shape of the product is built by adding, instead of separation or deformation of materials, offers a number of advantages over other similar methods. Amongst the most prominent ones are producing parts directly from a file, reduced processing and operation planning time, process implementation without the use of tools, reduced production cost, increased product quality, improved design, faster audit and product review. This method slowly gives way to the process of 3D printing, which, according to some indicators, being current job in the next 20 years. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The reverse engineering and rapid prototyping, walking hand-in-hand exactly fulfill the task for which are suitable -- to help quickly construct and reconstruct the damaged components. Our goal is to find areas where the technologies are not yet widely available, or find the technologies that can be used for industrial purposes and for the everyday practice. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Computer-Aided Design & Applications. 2013, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p307-319. 13p. 2 Color Photographs, 1 Black and White Photograph, 30 Diagrams, 2 Charts.
RAPID prototyping, NEW product development, MANUFACTURING processes, CONCURRENT engineering, MATHEMATICAL programming, and COMPUTER-aided design
In the "Project GEMA" geometry and mathematics, 62 prototypes were created to establish a conceptual and formal language of the internal architecture of the solids that maintains a progressive continuity through mathematics, to explore and analyze the changes generated by the points, lines, planes and volume of the cube, the sphere and the tetrahedron. The idea of this project came from mixture of geometric graphics and mathematics to construct models in three dimensions using CAD applications and rapid prototyping through the resources and elements of descriptive geometry. This paper illustrates step by step the construction of the "Project GEMA"® cube # 022, from the standpoint of mathematics and design with CAD applications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The article offers information on the benefits of additive manufacturing, three-dimensional (3D) printing, and rapid prototyping in manufacturing products. Topics discussed include the use of fused deposition modeling in additive manufacturing, the use of computer-aided design (CAD) software to design the products to be manufactured, and the use of low durometer silicone in producing parts with negative draft.
The dental implant surgery results usually depend on dentists' clinical experiences and judgments. Most implant surgery utilizes the software to process pre-operation planning and simulation. Hence, this research intended to apply the rapid prototyping (RP) technique to build real mandible model for implant surgery simulation. Unlike other simple mandible RP models, vessels and nerves pathways are demonstrated in our model to help dentists to avoid false drillings on them. Besides, orientation pillars for surgical guide are included in the model. Moreover, for comparison's purpose, the platforms of placing indexing balls are also integrated. Computed tomography (CT) data of mandible were first converted to a CAD model with vessels, nerve, orientation pillars, and indexing platforms by a medical imaging processing software. RP technique was then utilized to obtain a real 3D model for pre-operation planning, surgical guide fabrication, and surgery simulation. The mandible model helped to drill holes on the traditional surgical guide by a 5-axis CNC drill press and it also drilled into the mandible model. Besides, the dentist simulated the drilling process in the dental implant surgery on the mandible model. Both drilled RP mandible models were CT-scanned and compared with the designed implant locations and angles. The errors are within acceptable region. Our approach has been successfully demonstrated in dental implant's pre-operation planning and simulation, which will help to increase the successful rate and safety of dental implant surgery. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, COMPUTER software, COMPUTER-aided design, COMPUTER simulation, KINEMATICS, MOTION, and AUTOMOBILE racing
This paper addresses the issue of creating physical prototypes of large-scale and complex assemblies using Rapid Prototyping technology. There are several technical challenges to overcome, both in software and the physical models. The challenges in software mainly stem from the fact that the mainstream CAD systems may not able to directly convert large-scale and complex assemblies to STL models. For the issues in the physical model, some of the components of the scaled assemblies are too small to fabricate using RP or too weak to produce viable prototypes for intended purposes. In addition, the paper presents information regarding support of relative motion between components in the RP model, which is desirable for demonstrating kinematics of the system. The paper proposes a systematic approach that addresses these issues and realizes quality physical prototypes serving intended purposes. Practical examples are employed in this paper, including a Formula SAE race car assembly that is used as the principle example for this study. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
A fiber in fiber (FIF) bioreactor was designed and developed for cell culture to become a bioartificial liver device. The design consists of a conventional hollow fiber cartridge as a cell culture system with the addition of a second set of hollow fibers places within the lumens of the primary set. This arrangement provides three discrete spaces (compartments). A 3D CAD model of the device was developed and used to provide the suitable arrangement of these compartments. Internal and external diameters of the commercially available hollow fibers were studied and chosen. Two configurations of the device were developed and tested. Based on a 3D CAD model, two modules of the device were constructed and studied. Experimental evaluation of small scale FIF improved device prototype were constructed and results from studied quality assurance are also presented. The results showed that the developed bioartificial liver device has an excellent oxygen transfer rate which can improve the achievement of high density cell culture. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
INDUSTRIAL research, RAPID prototyping, MANUFACTURING processes, PRINTING industry, TIME to market (New products), COMPUTER-aided design, PRINTERS (Persons), PRINTING machinery & supplies, and AGILE manufacturing systems
The article discusses a research paper which focuses on how to gain agility through rapid prototyping technology in a manufacturing environment by using a 3D printer. It aims to investigate the adoption of rapid prototyping (RP) technology using three dimensional (3D) printer for infusing agility in traditional manufacturing environment. It reports an original research in which the practicality of using 3D printer is investigated with the objective of enabling the traditional manufacturing companies to imbibe agile characteristics. Findings are discussed which suggests that sensitization of the industry captains and employees of traditional manufacturing sector is the imperative for exploiting the power of 3D printer and achieving mass customization.
RAPID prototyping, PROTOTYPES, COMPUTER-aided design, CONCURRENT engineering, and MANUFACTURING processes
In contrast to traditional rapid prototyping of homogeneous objects, fabrication of heterogeneous objects (using layered manufacturing technologies) requires additional material information to be incorporated along with the object's geometries. The paper presents relevant data structures and algorithms for virtual prototyping of heterogeneous objects. Heterogeneous CAD models, which represent the ideal digital heterogeneous objects, are first described. Interrogation of the material compositions from the CAD models is then carried out at runtime. Voxels (with location-specific material properties) are subsequently created and maintained in a dynamic scan-line structure, layered-section structure and the virtual-object structure. The proposed data structures and the associate algorithms have been successfully applied in virtually prototyping of heterogeneous objects. Virtually fabricated heterogeneous object examples are provided. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
International Journal of Production Research. Oct2008, Vol. 46 Issue 20, p5607-5631. 25p. 1 Color Photograph, 11 Diagrams, 6 Charts, 1 Graph.
COMPUTER-aided design, CONCURRENT engineering, MANUFACTURING processes, RAPID prototyping, PRODUCTION management (Manufacturing), RESEARCH, and GENETIC algorithms
Significant savings in cost and time can be achieved in rapid prototyping (RP) by manufacturing multiple parts in a single setup to achieve efficient machine volume utilization. This paper reports the design and implementation of a system for the optimal layout planning of 3D parts for a RP process. A genetic algorithm (GA) based search strategy has been used to arrive at a good packing layout for a chosen set of parts and RP process. A two stage approach has been proposed to initially short-list acceptable orientations for each part followed by the search for a layout plan which optimizes in terms of final product quality and build time. The GA uses a hybrid objective function comprising of the weighted measures like part build height, staircase effect, volume and area-of-contact of support structures. In essence it captures the key metrics of efficiency and goodness of packing for RP. The final layout plan is produced in the form of a composite part CAD model which can be directly exported to a RP machine for manufacturing. Design methodology of the system has been presented with some representative case studies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This paper presents the investigation of computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technologies in jewelry design and manufacturing. Computer-aided design (CAD) and Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies play important roles in many industries including the jewelry industry. In this paper, CAD and RP technology is applied to design and build jewelry prototypes, and Rapid Tooling to build molds. The main aim of this paper is to describe the implementation of CAD and RP processes in the jewelry design and manufacturing. The applicability and effectiveness of RP, using Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA), is investigated in the field of jewelry model and mold making, moreover, the methodology is compared to conventional methods in term of time requiring, quality and manufacturing factors. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This article focuses on methodologies of discrete patches filling in reverse engineering and rapid prototyping. In the process of part or product design, reverse engineering is an important method for constructing computer aided-design (CAD) models from a physical part that already exists. In industrial applications, a user may need to reconstruct CAD models for parts where data point capture is incomplete, such as where digitized points are captured from a damaged physical part or from certain geometric features that are difficult for a coordinate measuring machine to characterize. The sets of data points consist of some regions without data.
The article focuses on additive manufacturing (AM) or also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing as an alternative for rapid prototyping. It says that AM is use in stereo lithography and selective laser sintering wherein the shape defined by computer-aided design (CAD) is achieved through deposition of various materials and use of lasers to fuse the layers. It mentions the increase trend of using bonded sand as build material.