IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering. 8(1):94-106
Environmental adaptation, iterative prototyping, participatory planning, usability, usability testing., Teknik, Maskinteknik, Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi, Engineering and Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Production Engineering, and Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Teknik, Elektroteknik och elektronik, Signalbehandling, Engineering and Technology, Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering, and Signal Processing
This paper sets up a framework for designing a massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) testbed by investigating hardware and system-level requirements such as processing complexity, duplexing mode and frame structure. Taking these into account, a generic system and processing partitioning is proposed which allows flexible scaling and processing distribution onto a multitude of physically separated devices. Based on the given hardware constraints such as maximum number of links and maximum throughput for peer-to-peer interconnections combined with processing capabilities, the framework allows to evaluate available off-the-shelf hardware components. To verify our design approach, we present the Lund University Massive MIMO (LuMaMi) testbed which constitutes the first reconfigurable real-time hardware platform for prototyping massive MIMO. Utilizing up to 100 base station antennas and more than 50 field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), up to 12 user equipments are served on the same time/frequency resource using an LTE-like OFDM TDD-based transmission scheme. Field trials with this system show that massive MIMO can spatially separate a multitude of users in a static indoor and static/dynamic outdoor environment.
Kamuf, Matthias, Anderson, John B, and Öwall, Viktor
IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS '03), 2003,Bangkok, Thailand,-- Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (Cat. No.03CH37430). :272-275
low power systems, convolutional codes, turbo codes, FPGA implementation, interleaver, observer canonical form critical path properties, code rates, unused system module shut down, wireless personal area networks, radio systems, flexible coding/decoding architectures, convolutional encoder flexibility, WPAN, power saving, Teknik, Elektroteknik och elektronik, Engineering and Technology, Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, and Information Engineering
In future radio systems, flexible coding and decoding architectures will be required. In case of the latter, implementing architectural flexibility with regard to low power issues is a challenging task. The flexible encoding platform in this paper is a first step toward this envisioned decoder. It generates a wide class of codes, starting with convolutional codes. As an extension to this, turbo codes will be included by adding an interleaver. At this prototyping stage, the system is implemented on an FPGA. The decision to choose the observer canonical form is defended by a thorough investigation of its critical path properties. Proper configuration allows code rates of b/c, b=1 ... 15, c=2 ... 16, b