PROTOTYPES, INDUSTRIAL design, ENGINEERING design, TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, and NEW product development
Prototyping can be seen as the heart of the innovation process. Typically, engineers and designers both work on prototyping activities, but their diverse backgrounds make for different perspectives on prototyping. Based on earlier literature, this study investigates commonalities and differences in the prototyping behavior of engineers and designers. For this study, semi‐structured interviews and workshops with different experiments were conducted. Using low‐fidelity prototypes, our results indicated that there are differences in the early phase of prototyping. Engineers focused on the features and functions of a prototype and needed to meet specific goals in order to push the process forward. Designers, on the other hand, used prototypes to investigate the design space for new possibilities, and were more open to a variety of prototyping materials and tools, especially for low‐fidelity prototypes. In the later prototyping phases, the prototyping behaviors of engineers and designers became similar. Our study contributes to the understanding of prototyping purposes, activities, and processes across disciplines, and supports the management of prototyping in new product development processes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This article focuses on methodologies of discrete patches filling in reverse engineering and rapid prototyping. In the process of part or product design, reverse engineering is an important method for constructing computer aided-design (CAD) models from a physical part that already exists. In industrial applications, a user may need to reconstruct CAD models for parts where data point capture is incomplete, such as where digitized points are captured from a damaged physical part or from certain geometric features that are difficult for a coordinate measuring machine to characterize. The sets of data points consist of some regions without data.
The article informs that rapid prototyping plays a critical role in the development of various consumer products. One might think that with today's high-end computer-aided design systems and high-resolution display screens, a product can be designed and assembled correctly in virtual space, then communicated to a factory and mass-produced at the touch of a button. Product development today always keeps the consumer in mind. In focus groups, ideation groups, and ethnography studies, the invited participants prefer to see and feel real products, not just look at computer-generated images. To refine the feel of a product, its ergonomic aspects must be evaluated, including the position and shape of handgrips, buttons, screens, dials, and ports. The overall development cycle is short. Creating a prototype--or rather a series of prototypes--is critical. Some markets change so quickly that toy makers in particular create two models--one that "works like" and one that "looks like"--before compressing all design considerations and iterations into a single footprint and launching into mass production in late summer.
International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing. Oct2014, Vol. 27 Issue 10, p901-918. 18p.
MEDICAL equipment industry, INNOVATIONS in business, MEDICAL instruments & apparatus manufacturing, RAPID prototyping, INDUSTRIAL design, and OPERATIVE surgery
Nowadays medical devices are a fast-growing industry. Advances in design, materials and technologies have increased the potential to find better solutions for those medical problems whose remedies were, up until now, unimaginable. A broad spectrum of new solutions is available ranging from new materials to new products, tools and procedures. Medical doctors have discovered how the latest advances in engineering support their work by making surgery or treatment processes easier than ever before. For this reason, medical devices are now a hot topic of industrial and academic interest in fields such as design, prototypes or manufacturing. This paper introduces a special issue with several medical device case studies, illustrating new developments in product design, material selection and prototype methods. In addition, the paper also reviews medical device development research and depicts some case studies to better explain the relationship between technology/engineering and medical devices. The paper contributes with some data on this combination of research fields. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
NEW product development, PROTOTYPES, INDUSTRIAL design, PRODUCT management, CUSTOMER services, and CONSUMERS
A major challenge in the creation of custom-designed products lies in the elicitation of customer needs. As customers are frequently unable to accurately articulate their needs, designers typically create one or several prototypes, which they then present to the customer. This process, which we call collaborative prototyping, allows both parties to anticipate the outcome of the design process. Prototypes have two advantages: They help the customer to evaluate the unknown customized product, and they guide both parties in the search for the ideal product specification. Collaborative prototyping involves two economic agents, with different information structures and different--and potentially conflicting--objective functions. This raises several interesting questions: how many prototypes should be built, who should pay for them, and how should they and the customized product be priced. We show that, depending on the design problem and the market characteristics, the designer should offer prototypes at a profit, at cost, or even for free. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Engineering Design. Jan-Mar2016, Vol. 27 Issue 1-3, p118-145. 28p. 7 Color Photographs, 4 Black and White Photographs, 5 Charts, 1 Graph.
ENGINEERING design, PRODUCT design, INDUSTRIAL design, GESTURE, and VIDEO coding
There is an on-going focus exploring the use of gesture in design situations; however, there are still significant questions as to how this is related to the understanding and communication of design concepts. This work explores the use of gesture through observing and video-coding four teams of engineering graduates during an ideation session. This was used to detail the relationship between the function behaviour structure elements and individual gestures as well as to identify archetypal gesture sequences – compound reflective, compound directed one-way, mirroring, and modification. Gesture sequences occurred at critical periods during the design session, such as idea evolution and developing shared understanding. They are used to act out design concepts, repeat and learn from sequences, and establish shared understanding. Finally, a number of implications are identified for both researchers and those seeking to support practice. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
International Journal of Production Research. May97, Vol. 35 Issue 5, p1349-1357. 9p.
RAPID prototyping, PROTOTYPES, MANUFACTURING processes, INDUSTRIAL design, and PRODUCT management
The emergence of rapid prototyping over the last 7-8 years has had a revolutionary effect in many companies undertaking new product design. Currently, the emphasis has moved from rapid prototyping to rapid tooling. Use of laminated tooling for sheet metal working has already been proved and some work has also been undertaken to build laminated tooling for moulding plastics. Laminated tooling is relatively rare at the moment and as more tools are built using this technique the benefits and limitations will become more clear. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Communications of the ACM. Jun2005, Vol. 48 Issue 6, p50-56. 7p. 1 Color Photograph, 1 Black and White Photograph, 2 Diagrams.
RAPID prototyping, MANUFACTURING processes, CAD/CAM systems, PROTOTYPES, INDUSTRIAL design, CONCURRENT engineering, and DIGITAL control systems
The article reports that digitally controlled layered manufacturing (LM) technologies are transforming prototyping and mass customization of mechanical and biomedical parts of extraordinary geometric complexity. LM, also known as solid freeform fabrication or rapid prototyping, has revolutionized one-off production by automating the planning aspects of the manufacturing process, thereby making possible quick and economic prototyping of complex 3D parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) solid models. In all LM processes, the 3D CAD model is sliced into horizontal layers of uniform thickness. Each cross-sectional layer is successively deposited, hardened, fused, or cut, depending on the particular process, and attached to the layer beneath it. 3D Systems' Stereolithography apparatus was the first commercially available LM technology, introduced in 1988, and is still probably the best known. One advantage of many LM processes over traditional prototyping is the ease of making complicated shapes with relatively inaccessible interior chambers.
International Journal of Production Economics. Mar2014, Vol. 149, p194-201. 8p.
RAPID prototyping, MASS production, BUSINESS ecosystems, INDUSTRIAL design, SUSTAINABILITY, and STRUCTURAL frame models
Abstract: As mass production has migrated to developing countries, European and US companies are forced to rapidly switch towards low volume production of more innovative, customised and sustainable products with high added value. To compete in this turbulent environment, manufacturers have sought new fabrication techniques to provide the necessary tools to support the need for increased flexibility and enable economic low volume production. One such emerging technique is Additive Manufacturing (AM). AM is a method of manufacture which involves the joining of materials, usually layer-upon-layer, to create objects from 3D model data. The benefits of this methodology include new design freedom, removal of tooling requirements, and economic low volumes. AM consists of various technologies to process versatile materials, and for many years its dominant application has been the manufacture of prototypes, or Rapid Prototyping. However, the recent growth in applications for direct part manufacture, or Rapid Manufacturing, has resulted in much research effort focusing on development of new processes and materials. This study focuses on the implementation process of AM and is motivated by the lack of socio-technical studies in this area. It addresses the need for existing and potential future AM project managers to have an implementation framework to guide their efforts in adopting this new and potentially disruptive technology class to produce high value products and generate new business opportunities. Based on a review of prior works and through qualitative case study analysis, we construct and test a normative structural model of implementation factors related to AM technology, supply chain, organisation, operations and strategy. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits & Systems. 04/01/2011, Vol. 30 Issue 4, p473-491. 19p.
PROTOTYPES, ALGORITHMS, INDUSTRIAL design, FIELD programmable gate arrays -- Design & construction, SYSTEMS on a chip, CASE studies, and EXPERIMENTS
Escalating system-on-chip design complexity is pushing the design community to raise the level of abstraction beyond register transfer level. Despite the unsuccessful adoptions of early generations of commercial high-level synthesis (HLS) systems, we believe that the tipping point for transitioning to HLS methodology is happening now, especially for field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs. The latest generation of HLS tools has made significant progress in providing wide language coverage and robust compilation technology, platform-based modeling, advancement in core HLS algorithms, and a domain-specific approach. In this paper, we use AutoESL's AutoPilot HLS tool coupled with domain-specific system-level implementation platforms developed by Xilinx as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of state-of-art C-to-FPGA synthesis solutions targeting multiple application domains. Complex industrial designs targeting Xilinx FPGAs are also presented as case studies, including comparison of HLS solutions versus optimized manual designs. In particular, the experiment on a sphere decoder shows that the HLS solution can achieve an 11–31% reduction in FPGA resource usage with improved design productivity compared to hand-coded design. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
We have developed a multipurpose experimental control and data acquisition system designed for rapid prototyping of small educational experiments. The system has been designed with an emphasis on low cost, flexibility, and simplification of soft- ware and firmware design for minimal time to experiment. Software has been developed for command-line and html-based control and readout interfaces, as well as a TCP/IP server communicating with LabVIEW. A standard Linux kernel and open-source development tools simplifies software development. A common VHDL framework containing a standard interface with the computer's external peripheral bus allows rapid firmware development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, PROTOTYPES, INDUSTRIAL design, RAPID tooling, and INJECTION molding of plastics
Compares the various methods of prototyping in plastic part design. Advantages and disadvantages of rapid prototyping, rapid tooling, rapid injection molding and traditional injection molding; Characteristics of a prototype; Factors to consider in choosing prototyping methods for plastic part design.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies are widely adopted in design practice for prototyping. However, the extent to which practitioners are knowledgeable and experienced in designing components for series production using AM remains poorly understood. This study presents the results of an online survey aimed at uncovering this emerging design activity, with additional evidence provided by semi-structured interviews with 18 designers. One hundred ten practising designers responded. The majority of the respondents remain sceptical about the potential for AM as a process for series production, citing cost and technical capabilities as key barriers. Only 23 reported experience in designing components for series production using AM, with the majority of these designing parts to be produced from plastic. The survey revealed that these designers have developed their own ‘design rules’ based primarily on personal experience. These rules, however, tended to focus on ensuring ‘printability’ and did not provide support for taking advantage of the unique capabilities of AM processes. The designers tended to treat AM processes as a uniform set of production processes, and so the design rules they used were generic and not directed to the capabilities of specific AM processes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The article offers helpful insights on how to deal with shops that provide rapid prototyping (RP) services. The best RP firms choose the right process in the customer's best interest, turn parts around fast, and have a solid business history. Choosing a trustworthy bureau entails asking the firm on how long it has been in the business, what services it offers, and the age of its equipment. It is also helpful to be cautious of online quoting pitfalls. INSETS: What about start-ups?;Common DDM lingo.
RAPID prototyping, PROTOTYPES, MANUFACTURING processes, PRODUCT design, INDUSTRIAL design, and ELECTRIC equipment
The article discusses the importance for appliance designers to consider all options before choosing where to make prototype parts. It is stated that the innovations in rapid prototyping allows designers to choose from a wide variety of technical methods to product a prototype part, with each approach offering its own distinct set of advantages and disadvantages. INSET: Be a Part Owner.