RAPID prototyping, SEARCH algorithms, DIELECTRIC-loaded antennas, THREE-dimensional printing, and PERMITTIVITY
A prototyping method for dielectrically loaded antennas is presented. Dielectric loading has been used with horn antennas, feeds, and lenses. Dielectrics have also been used for coating antennas submerged in water and biological matter and have led to improvements in bandwidth and efficiency as well as antenna miniaturisation. The authors present a new technique to produce variable dielectrics with permittivity from 6 to 28 using two commonly available powders, titanium dioxide (used in foods) and magnesium silicate (used in talcum powder). An example spherical helical ball antenna is used to demonstrate the process. In this antenna, the mixed powders were encased in a 3D printed shell that achieved a reduction in diameter of the spherical antenna by a factor of 1.85. The technique aids rapid prototyping and optimisation using search algorithms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Current methods for rapid prototyping of composite products, applied by a computer during manufacturing, allow for materializing even the most complex 3D objects created in a CAD application in a very short time and without any subsequent processing. After determining the validity of a designed prototype, it can be physically implemented using standard methods or tools for plastic injection molding. This paper presents application of commercial CAD programming packages in modelling 3D objects for rapid implementation of composite prototypes using layer-by-layer method. This specific method, in which the shape of the product is built by adding, instead of separation or deformation of materials, offers a number of advantages over other similar methods. Amongst the most prominent ones are producing parts directly from a file, reduced processing and operation planning time, process implementation without the use of tools, reduced production cost, increased product quality, improved design, faster audit and product review. This method slowly gives way to the process of 3D printing, which, according to some indicators, being current job in the next 20 years. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The article offers information on the benefits of additive manufacturing, three-dimensional (3D) printing, and rapid prototyping in manufacturing products. Topics discussed include the use of fused deposition modeling in additive manufacturing, the use of computer-aided design (CAD) software to design the products to be manufactured, and the use of low durometer silicone in producing parts with negative draft.
International Journal of Production Research. May2016, Vol. 54 Issue 10, p3118-3132. 15p. 7 Diagrams, 1 Chart.
RAPID prototyping, TREND analysis in business, PROTOTYPES, TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, MANUFACTURING processes, and THREE-dimensional printing
The rapid prototyping has been developed from the 1980s to produce models and prototypes until the technologies evolution today. Nowadays, these technologies have other names such as 3D printing or additive manufacturing, and so forth, but they all have the same origins from rapid prototyping. The design and manufacturing process stood the same until new requirements such as a better integration on production line, a largest series of manufacturing or the reduce weight of products due to heavy costs of machines and materials. The ability to produce complex geometries allows proposing of design and manufacturing solutions in the industrial field in order to be ever more effective. The additive manufacturing (AM) technology develops rapidly with news solutions and markets which sometimes need to demonstrate their reliability. The community needs to survey some evolutions such as the new exchange format, the faster 3D printing systems, the advanced numerical simulation or the emergence of new use. This review is addressed to persons who wish have a global view on the AM and improve their understanding. We propose to review the different AM technologies and the new trends to get a global overview through the engineering and manufacturing process. This article describes the engineering and manufacturing cycle with the 3D model management and the most recent technologies from the evolution of additive manufacturing. Finally, the use of AM resulted in new trends that are exposed below with the description of some new economic activities. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, MANUFACTURING processes, THREE-dimensional printing, and STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
The article focuses on rapid prototyping services along with its significance in designing approaches. Topics discussed include enhancement of manufacturing process with deployment of rapid prototype conditions; consideration of 3D printing technology in different processes such as stereo lithography; and attainment of regulatory approval by several agencies such as the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA).
RAPID prototyping, TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, MANUFACTURING processes, THREE-dimensional printing, 3-D printers, and DIGITAL printing
The article focuses on the evolution and improvements on 3D printer, one of the most important tools for product development as it helps prototypers build parts in a matter of hours, when machining or molding can take days or weeks. Information on some of the innovations include high-performance filaments, multi-material printing, and metal printing.
RAPID prototyping, GEARING, THREE-dimensional printing, GEARBOXES, and HELICAL gears
The article provides information on possibilities of different types of gear in prototyping and their role in our everyday life. Topics discussed include gears like straight cut spur, helical, and alternative gear trains; harvesting of gears from another product, and requirement for 3D printing and custom gearing.
RAPID prototyping, CULTURAL property, THREE-dimensional printing, COMPUTATIONAL geometry, and STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
Digital fabrication devices exploit basic technologies in order to create tangible reproductions of 3D digital models. Although current 3D printing pipelines still suffer from several restrictions, accuracy in reproduction has reached an excellent level. The manufacturing industry has been the main domain of 3D printing applications over the last decade. Digital fabrication techniques have also been demonstrated to be effective in many other contexts, including the consumer domain. The Cultural Heritage is one of the new application contexts and is an ideal domain to test the flexibility and quality of this new technology. This survey overviews the various fabrication technologies, discussing their strengths, limitations and costs. Various successful uses of 3D printing in the Cultural Heritage are analysed, which should also be useful for other application contexts. We review works that have attempted to extend fabrication technologies in order to deal with the specific issues in the use of digital fabrication in the Cultural Heritage. Finally, we also propose areas for future research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, INJECTION molding, THERMOPLASTICS, SILICONE rubber, NUMERICAL control of machine tools, and THREE-dimensional printing
The article focuses on digital manufacturing model is accelerating from rapid prototypes and first-run production parts to "on-demand" short-run manufacturing with injection molding services. It mentions one-demand injection molding of thermoplastics and silicone rubber outpaced its prototyping business for the first time. It also mentions new processes within injection molding and computerized numerical control (CNC) machining with additive manufacturing.
The article focuses on additive manufacturing (AM) or also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing as an alternative for rapid prototyping. It says that AM is use in stereo lithography and selective laser sintering wherein the shape defined by computer-aided design (CAD) is achieved through deposition of various materials and use of lasers to fuse the layers. It mentions the increase trend of using bonded sand as build material.
The article reports on the development of additive manufacturing, more commonly known as three-dimensional (3D) printing. It is said that additive manufacturing is increasingly used to produce parts with greater speed, improved economics and performance. Earlier, additive manufacturing was primarily used to make prototypes of new products.
It is shown how modern rapid prototyping technologies can be applied for quick and inexpensive, but still accurate, fabrication of electrically small wire antennas. A well known folded spherical helix antenna and a novel spherical zigzag antenna have been fabricated and tested, exhibiting the impedance and radiation characteristics in close agreement with those predicted numerically. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
We present an interactive design system for designing free-formed bamboo-copters, where novices can easily design free-formed, even asymmetric bamboo-copters that successfully fly. The designed bamboo-copters can be fabricated using digital fabrication equipment, such as a laser cutter. Our system provides two useful functions for facilitating this design activity. First, it visualizes a simulated flight trajectory of the current bamboo-copter design, which is updated in real time during the user's editing. Second, it provides an optimization function that automatically tweaks the current bamboo-copter design such that the spin quality—how stably it spins—and the flight quality—how high and long it flies—are enhanced. To enable these functions, we present non-trivial extensions over existing techniques for designing free-formed model airplanes [UKSI14], including a wing discretization method tailored to free-formed bamboo-copters and an optimization scheme for achieving stable bamboo-copters considering both spin and flight qualities. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, THREE-dimensional printing, POLYMERS, PHOTOPOLYMERS, and ELASTOMERS
The article discusses several aspects of prototyping with PolyJet three-dimensional (3D) printing. It mentions PolyJet has the ability to mimic various polymers, including LSR (liquid silicone rubber). It also mentions PolyJet uses a jetting process where small droplets of liquid photopolymer, called voxels, are sprayed from multiple jets onto a build platform and cured in layers that form elastomeric part.
The article discusses how manufacturers can implement a laser-based, metal powder-bed fusion process to help ensure that products reliably meet specifications. Additive manufacturing (AM) is now used for the production of mission-critical components for use in high-tech industries. However, its implementation has been delayed by challenges with achieving a uniform product.
This paper presents the use of terahertz near-field focusing for backscatter side-channel detection. Near-field focusing is done by using a Cassegrain reflector configuration. The focuser is designed to produce the focused beam 28 cm away from the antenna aperture. The focusing is done in the near-field region by axially moving the subreflector from the focal point. It is observed that the subreflector position has to shift approximately 11 wavelengths along the axis to create the focus at the required location. The focused antenna gain is 46 dBi, while the 3 dB focus width and depth of the designed antenna is ~4 mm and 10 cm, respectively. It is found that the focal plane position is sensitive to the subreflector shifts and it is observed that 1 mm change in the subreflector position can shift the focal plane by ~2 cm. The simulations are compared with the measurement results of a fabricated prototype and good agreement is observed. The antenna is fabricated by using 3-D printing technology, which allows rapid prototyping. Finally, we have demonstrated the detection of backscatter side channel from the board placed at 28 cm away from the designed antenna. The received power level of the backscatter signal increases by 6 dB as compared to horn antenna. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
3-D printing technology has attracted growing interest of many researchers in the area of antenna design as a new prototyping and manufacturing technology. It is capable of forming arbitrary 3-D structures with lower cost and shorter prototyping time. This paper aims to present a novel methodology to control antenna radiation pattern based on 3-D printing of specially designed dielectric material, which realizes spatially dependent dielectric constants around the antenna. As a proof-of-concept, we propose a design of a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna surrounded by a 3-D-printed polymer structure with an optimized dielectric property distribution. Unlike the conventional donut-shaped pattern of a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna, one-beam and multiple-beam patterns are obtained using a genetic-algorithm-based optimization. Different dielectric constant spatial distributions are realized by changing the ratio of the dielectric to air at the unit cell level in the entire antenna volume. A two-beam monopole prototype is designed, fabricated, and tested. The measurement results demonstrate agreement with the simulation results. The proposed design method enables another degree of freedom for antenna design, which can be extended to other types of antennas. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, ELASTOMERS, 3-D printers, and THREE-dimensional printing
The article discusses the company Stratasys which is bringing to market advanced elastomers and enhanced materials for its leading Fused Granular Manufacturing (FDM) and Polyjet machines that are used in three-dimensional printing. It states that the FDM elastomer solution provides manufacturers with new levels of elasticity, durability with true soluble support, while advanced colors for Polyjet drive enhanced realism in transforming legacy design and prototyping processes.
RAPID prototyping, ENERGY consumption, THREE-dimensional printing, SUSTAINABILITY, and STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
Additive manufacturing (AM), also referred as three-dimensional printing or rapid prototyping, has been implemented in various areas as one of the most promising new manufacturing technologies in the past three decades. In addition to the growing public interest in developing AM into a potential mainstream manufacturing approach, increasing concerns on environmental sustainability, especially on energy consumption, have been presented. To date, research efforts have been dedicated to quantitatively measuring and analyzing the energy consumption of AM processes. Such efforts only covered partial types of AM processes and explored inadequate factors that might influence the energy consumption. In addition, energy consumption modeling for AM processes has not been comprehensively studied. To fill the research gap, this article presents a mathematical model for the energy consumption of stereolithography (SLA)-based processes. To validate the mathematical model, experiments are conducted to measure the real energy consumption from an SLA-based AM machine. The design of experiments method is adopted to examine the impacts of different parameters and their potential interactions on the overall energy consumption. For the purpose of minimization of the total energy consumption, a response optimization method is used to identify the optimal combination of parameters. The surface quality of the product built using a set of optimal parameters is obtained and compared with parts built with different parameter combinations. The comparison results show that the overall energy consumption from SLA-based AM processes can be significantly reduced through optimal parameter setting, without observable product quality decay. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]