Medlej, Maroun, Stuban, Steven M. F., and Dever, Jason R.
Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University. Oct2017, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p626-655. 30p.
SYSTEMS engineering, RAPID prototyping, DEFENSE industries, MANUFACTURING processes, and LIKELIHOOD ratio tests
In 2007, John Young, then-Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, mandated the use of "competitive prototyping" strategies in defense acquisition. Further, Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02 includes considerations for prototyping in the acquisition strategy. A 2017 memorandum circulated by Young lists five prototyping benefits, which are expected to "reduce technical risk, validate designs, validate cost estimates, evaluate manufacturing processes, and refine requirements." However, a process to assess whether, and to what extent, a prototype will be or has been successful in achieving these benefits is not currently in use by the Department of Defense. Because cost increases and schedule extension downsides are inherent in prototyping, such an assessment is critical. This research proposes an approach for assessing the likelihood of achieving expected prototyping benefits based on identifying the factors yielding these benefits as well as their relative weights. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Tih, Siohong, Wong, Kok-Kee, Lynn, Gary S., and Reilly, Richard R.
Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing. 2016, Vol. 31 Issue 4, p437-448. 12p.
RAPID prototyping, NEW product development, COMMERCIAL products, CUSTOMER satisfaction, and INFORMATION dissemination
Purpose Rapid prototyping can potentially accelerate the entire process of new product development (NPD), enabling a high level of customer involvement and hence new product success (NPS). This study aims to examine the relationship between prototyping and NPS, and the moderating effect of customer involvement, as well as the influence of speed of information dissemination on customer involvement.Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using the survey method through structured questionnaires. The key participants were management and team leaders from technology-based companies.Findings The results indicate that prototyping positively correlates with NPS, particularly when customer involvement is high. The speed of information dissemination, both from customers and on competitive products, has a positive impact on customer involvement.Research limitations/implications The study was limited by the undefined development stage of the prototype when offered for customer feedback. Future studies could focus on how customer involvement at each stage of prototype development affects NPS through a moderating effect.Practical implications The study confirms that investing in prototyping equipment for NPD increases the probability of NPS. Information capturing customers’ views and on competitive products in the market should be shared among the NPD teams. This could encourage better sharing of opinions and perceptions with customers about whether new products meet their wishes and expectations.Originality/value This study demonstrates that customer involvement moderates the relationship between prototyping and NPS. The degree of customer involvement depended on the speed of response of the customers themselves and on how well competitive product information was disseminated within the NPD team. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
A fiber in fiber (FIF) bioreactor was designed and developed for cell culture to become a bioartificial liver device. The design consists of a conventional hollow fiber cartridge as a cell culture system with the addition of a second set of hollow fibers places within the lumens of the primary set. This arrangement provides three discrete spaces (compartments). A 3D CAD model of the device was developed and used to provide the suitable arrangement of these compartments. Internal and external diameters of the commercially available hollow fibers were studied and chosen. Two configurations of the device were developed and tested. Based on a 3D CAD model, two modules of the device were constructed and studied. Experimental evaluation of small scale FIF improved device prototype were constructed and results from studied quality assurance are also presented. The results showed that the developed bioartificial liver device has an excellent oxygen transfer rate which can improve the achievement of high density cell culture. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]