Deppe, M., Zanella, M., Robrecht, M., and Hardt, W.
Journal of Systems & Software. Mar2004, Vol. 70 Issue 3, p263. 12p.
PROTOTYPES, AUTOMOBILE industry, REAL-time control, and COMPUTER simulation
Rapid prototyping of complex systems embedded in even more complex environments raises the need for a layered design approach. Our example is a mechatronic design taken from the automotive industry and illustrates the rapid-prototyping procedure of real-time-critical control laws. The approach is based on an object-oriented structuring allowing not only central control units but also distributed control units as needed by today’s designs. The implementation of control laws is a hardware-in-the-loop simulation, refined in steps and reducing the simulation part at every one of these. On the lower level, common platforms, such as FPGAs, microcontrollers or specialized platforms, can be instantiated. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Hansel, David, Cleaveland, Rance, and Smolka, Scott A.
Journal of Systems & Software. Mar2004, Vol. 70 Issue 3, p275. 24p.
COMPUTER operating systems, C++, REAL-time computing, and COMPUTER simulation
We present vpl2cxx, a translator that automatically generates efficient, fully distributed C++ code from high-level system models specified in the mathematically well-founded VPL design language. As the Concurrency Workbench of the New Century (CWB-NC) verification tool includes a front-end for VPL, designers may use the full range of automatic verification and simulation checks provided by this tool on their VPL system designs before invoking the translator, thereby generating distributed prototypes from validated specifications. Besides being fully distributed, the code generated by vpl2cxx is highly readable and portable to a host of execution environments and real-time operating systems (RTOSes). This is achieved by encapsulating all generated code dealing with low-level interprocess communication issues in a library for synchronous communication, which in turn is built upon the adaptive communication environment (ACE) client-server network programming interface. Finally, example applications show that the performance of the generated code is very good, especially for prototyping purposes. We discuss two such examples, including the RETHER real-time Ethernet protocol for voice and video applications. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
ENERGY consumption, COMPUTATIONAL fluid dynamics, COMPUTER simulation, INTERNAL combustion engines, and COGENERATORS
Cogeneration is commonly recognized as one of the most effective solutions to achieve the increasingly stringent reduction in primary energy consumption and greenhouse emissions. This characteristic led to the adoption of specific directives promoting this technique. In addition, a strategic role in power reliability is recognized to distributed generation. The study and prototyping of cogeneration plants, therefore, has involved many research centres. This paper deals with energetic aspects of CHP referring to the study of a 15 kW micro-CHP plant based on a LPG reciprocating engine designed, built and grid connected. The plant consists of a heat recovery system characterized by a single water circuit recovering heat from exhaust gases, from engine coolant and from the energy radiated by the engine within the shell hosting the plant. Some tests were carried out at whole open throttle and the experimental data were collected. However it was needed to perform a 1D thermo-fluid dynamics simulation of the engine to completely characterize the micro-CHP. As the heat actually recovered depends on the user's thermal load, particularly from the required temperature's level, a comparison of the results for six types of users were performed: residential, hospital, office, commercial, sports, hotel. Both Italian legislative indexes IRE and LT were evaluated, as defined by A.E.E.G resolution n. 42/02 and subsequent updates, as well as the plant's total Primary Energy Saving. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Pettigrew, Liam, Blomenhofer, Verena, Hubert, Stefan, Groß, Frauke, and Delgado, Antonio
Journal of Cleaner Production. Jan2015, Vol. 87, p583-593. 11p.
MANUFACTURING processes, MATHEMATICAL optimization, WATER use, BREWERY waste, COMPUTER simulation, and PETRI nets
The brewery industry is becoming increasingly aware of its water and energy usage due to stricter regulations, and environmental and economic incentives. An area where large improvements in water usage presents itself is the clean-in-place system. A significant portion of the total process water required in an industrial sized brewery is used during clean-in-place processes. Testing and optimisation of these industrial processes can be quickly and economically achieved using computer modelling and simulation tools. One such tool is the reference net, a subclass of object-oriented Petri nets. In order to predict the water usage and the potential for energy production from wastewater attributed to the clean-in-place plant in a brewery, the reference net formalism is used. Validation of the complete reference net system is undertaken using two sets of simulations, one set of simulations running an approximation of a standard brewery clean-in-place system and a second set implementing a fuzzy logic adaptive control for water reuse. The reference net is found to be a valid and efficient tool for quick prototyping of new and existing industrial sized brewery clean-in-place systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]