Cellular structures are one of the effective ways to produce parts with higher resource efficiency by reducing material and time used. These complex structures can be built by using Additive Manufacturing (AM) which is hardly achievable by using traditional subtractive manufacturing. Cellular structures can be designed and modelled according to desired, specific properties. However, the modelling can be time and resource consuming, due to the complexity and the size of the structure. This article proposes a modelling technique for rapid generation of cellular structure. The method works based on a concept of a hybrid B-Rep and polygon approach. Prefabrication of unit cell kernels is introduced to shorten time in a populating phase, which results in a significant reduction of modelling time, especially for a structure with a large number of cells. The implementation of this method by using open-source library, Open Cascade Technology (OCCT) and Visualization Toolkits (VTK), is also presented. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Yeomans, S.G., Bouchlaghem, N.M., and El-Hamalawi, A.
Automation in Construction. Mar2006, Vol. 15 Issue 2, p139-149. 11p.
ENGINEERING, CONSTRUCTION industry, INDUSTRIAL arts, and TECHNOLOGY
Abstract: ‘Collaborative working’ and ‘prototyping’ have both been identified by many within the industry as two methods of working that can help organisations become more profitable and productive. However, when used collectively the potential exists to bring improvements to the Architectural, Engineering and Construction sectors through the eradication of waste and re-work. The concept of ‘Collaborative Prototyping’ provides a process that challenges existing cultural attitudes and working processes and advocates a change in the way conventional projects are managed, in order to achieve a more competitive industry. This paper presents the results of a study on the evaluation of current Collaborative Prototyping practices within the Architectural, Engineering and Construction industry. It reviews existing collaborative methods of working along with current developments. An evaluation of the role of 3D modelling and prototyping practices has also been conducted, and the current levels of the industry''s use are established. This paper concludes that the industry makes little use of Collaborative Prototyping, and therefore at present does not maximise the potential that prototyping and collaborative working offer in improving working practices. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
THREE-dimensional printing, DIGITIZATION, RAPID prototyping, and ALLOMETRY
Charkadio Cave, on Tilos Island, is one of the richest Mediterranean fossiliferous sites, preserving remains of the dwarf elephant Palaeoloxodon tiliensis . This species is considered to be the last European elephant. Recent advances in the fields of engineering and imaging technology and their applications in palaeontology have allowed the digitization, modelling and 3D printing of skeletal remains of P. tiliensis for the first time. Taphonomical data were combined with appropriate mathematical methods and allometric analyses in order to determine missing bone measurements and estimate correct relative proportions of skeletal elements. Computed Tomography and non-contact digitization via Laser Scanning were used in order to capture the specimens' surface morphology and create 3D models that are adjusted to the correct dimensions derived from the mathematical analyses. The 3D models were then 3D printed with the use of Rapid Prototyping technologies. A research potential of fossil 3D modeling could be its application in morphological comparisons between different taxa. In this study, atlas 3D models of P. tiliensis and Palaeoloxodon antiquus (Falconer and Cautley, 1847) have been combined in a single 3D model that quantifies morphological differences by a color scale, thus minimizing observation error. 3D models and 3D printed replicas facilitate and enhance inter-institutional scientific interaction, minimizing costs and risks related to the transfer of irreplaceable fossil specimens. Finally, a positive outcome related to the above research could be its application in educational activities hosted in institutes such as schools, universities and museums. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
THREE-dimensional printing, SKULL surgery, CRANIOFACIAL abnormalities, HEAD injuries, and COMPUTER-aided design
Purpose To relieve intracranial pressure and save patient inflicted with severe head injury, neurosurgeons restore cranial defects. These defects can be caused because of trauma or diseases (Osteomyelitis of bone) which are treated by cranioplasty, using the preserved bone of patient. In case of non-availability of bone, a cranial implant is generated using a biocompatible synthetic material, but this process is less accurate and time-consuming. Hence, this paper aims to present the use of rapid prototyping technology that allows the development of a more accurate patient-specific template and saves the surgery time.Design/methodology/approach A five-year-old girl patient having cranial defect was taken up for cranioplasty. CT (computed tomography) scans of the patient were used to generate 3D design of the implant suitable to conceal the defect on the left frontal portion using CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing) software. The design was used for 3D printing to manufacture a base template, which was finally used to fabricate the actual implant using Simplex® P bone cement material to conceal the defect.Findings Surgery using Simplex® P implant was performed successfully on the patient, giving precise natural curvature to left frontal portion of the patient, decreasing surgery time by about 30 per cent.Originality/value The case demonstrates the development of a convenient, time-saving and aesthetically superior digital procedure to treat cranial defect in the absence of preserved bone flap using CT scan as input. 3D modelling and printing were deployed to produce an accurate template which was used to generate an implant using bone cement biocompatible material. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
M., Šokac, I., Budak, S., Mirković, Ž., Santoši, D., Movrin, and T., Puškar
Journal for Technology of Plasticity. Dec2017, Vol. 42 Issue 2, p33-45. 13p.
BONE grafting, EXPERIMENTAL surgery, THREE-dimensional printing, RAPID prototyping, and CONFIRMATION (Logic)
In this paper applications of advanced 3D technologies used for designing a complex personalized bone grafts, frequently used in the field of oral surgery, will be presented. This applications will be presented through several complex cases of designed and manufactured personalized bone grafts, with a unique functional and visual characteristics suited for each patient individually. The first step of this whole process is the designing stage of 3D models of bone grafts using advanced 3D technologies. The next step is the application of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies for producing of these personalized bone grafts as a verification stage. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
THREE-dimensional printing, TEXTILES, MANUFACTURING processes, GEOMETRY, and COMPUTER-aided engineering
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate, develop and validate a three-dimensional modelling strategy for the efficient generation of conformal textile data suitable for additive manufacture. Design/methodology/approach – A series of additive manufactured (AM) textiles samples were modelled using currently available computer-aided design software to understand the limitations associated with the generation of conformal data. Results of the initial three-dimensional modelling processes informed the exploration and development of a new dedicated efficient modelling strategy that was tested to understand its capabilities. Findings – The research demonstrates the dramatically improved capabilities of the developed three-dimensional modelling strategy, over existing approaches by accurately mapping complex geometries described as STL data to a mapping mesh without distortion and correctly matching the orientation and surface normal. Originality/value – To date the generation of data for AM textiles has been seen as a manual and time-consuming process. The research presents a new dedicated methodology for the efficient generation of complex and conformal AM textile data that will underpin further research in this area. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]