When a vehicle leaves the roadway, the likelihood of a roadway departure (RwD) crash can be deadly. Roadway departure conflicts usually involve a single vehicle, which occurs after a vehicle crosses an edge line, a centerline, or otherwise leaves the designated traveled way and collide with another vehicle or with a fixed object or overturns, etc. This study investigates the nature of the interrelations between roadway, vehicle, and driver (characteristics and behavior) risk factors in roadway departure conflicts. The purpose of this thesis study was to examine which factors increase the risk of roadway departure conflict and increase the likelihood becoming a roadway departure crash, using the Second Strategic Highway Research program (SHRP2) data. SHRP2 include Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) and Roadway Information Database (RID), which were collected from six different states in 2010-2012. Stepwise logistic and generalized linear regression models were estimated to provide insights as to those factors that have association with roadway departure conflicts and more importantly to those that are more likely to lead the conflict into crashes.The results revealed that drivers pre-incident maneuvers, judgment maneuvers, secondary tasks (distracted drivers), road alignment (curves) were significant factors. Driver education, average mileage driven per years were also significant factors. However, driver gender and age were non-significant risk factor of roadway departure conflicts in the current study.
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, and poses a considerable burden on a child’s short- and long-term health. Most obesity presents in the early (preschool) years, and once established tracks into later life. Therefore, identification of risk factors in the preschool period is considered critical for prevention of long-term obesity. In the United Arab Emirate (UAE), the rising prevalence of childhood obesity is of great public health concern. However, no previous study has explored risk factors for obesity in preschool children. This PhD aimed to: (i) identify risk factors for preschool obesity in the UAE (Study 1); (ii) describe dietary intake and patterns of preschool children, and explore their associations with risk of obesity (Study 2); and (iii) in a randomised controlled trial investigate the effectiveness of the ‘Eat Right Emirates’ (ERE) tool, a simple leaflet intervention designed to encourage a healthy lifestyle and prevent preschool obesity (Study 3). Study 1 showed that a longer duration of breastfeeding, and later introduction of complementary foods were associated with lower BMI z-score. Study 2 found that, compared with UK dietary guidelines, preschool children in the UAE exceeded intakes of protein, but did not meet recommended intakes for fibre. A high carbohydrate intake as a percentage of energy was associated with lower BMI z-score, whereas a high fat intake was associated with higher BMI z-score. A priori derived diet score found diets of preschool children were suboptimal, and principal component analysis identified three dietary patterns (‘traditional/health-conscious’, ‘processed/western’ and ‘convenience/snack’), which were not associated with BMI z-score. Study 3 found that the ERE tool was effective in reducing obesity risk compared to controls at 6-month follow-up. These findings, and the high compliance rate, suggest that the simple intervention is a promising approach for prevention of obesity in the UAE.
This research considers the possibility of a locally-centric design education curricula in Amman, Jordan by investigating the philosophies, theories, practices and models of curriculum and pedagogy most appropriate for design education. It describes perceptions of design and examines the possibilities for shifting these perceptions to move towards transforming design education. Jordan is a neopatriarchal society, and education re-enacts the dominant structures of the state within curriculum and pedagogy centred on the authority of the educator. This thesis argues for a decolonised design education based on a student-centred pedagogy drawn from the process and praxis curriculum models - a design education and design otherwise. Working with a range of designers, students and educators, it investigates the potential of these actors to contribute to the development of a pedagogy for design education in Jordan that is relevant to the milieu and locality. It poses the following questions: What philosophies, theories, practices, models of curriculum, and pedagogy are appropriate?; What potential shifts could this require and create?; How do we shift perceptions? This qualitative research uses interviews, focus groups, and design charrettes for data collection. Through participation and engagement with people that have most at stake in design education - designers, design educators and design students - I argue for an emancipatory design education that reflects on design beyond its traditional service-provider definition. Drawing on scholarship from design and education studies, and literature from fields such as history, decolonial studies, architecture and urbanism, political science, economics and philosophy, I argue for a curriculum model and student-centred pedagogy that considers design's role in society. Literature on Arab higher education is preoccupied with reforms to help the Arab region build a knowledge-society without considering the role of curriculum models and pedagogy nor addressing power structures. In addition, within design, little literature exists on the Arab region or Jordan, leaving its design culture(s) largely undocumented. My thesis investigates design education in higher education in Jordan by concentrating on models of pedagogy and curriculum and provides an overview of Jordan's contemporary design culture.