Aejin Lee, McKensie L. Mason, Tao Lin, Shashi Bhushan Kumar, Devan Kowdley, Jacob H. Leung, Danah Muhanna, Yuan Sun, Joana Ortega-Anaya, Lianbo Yu, Julie Fitzgerald, A. Courtney DeVries, Randy J. Nelson, Zachary M. Weil, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Jon R. Parquette, and Ouliana Ziouzenkova
Pharmaceutics, Vol 14, Iss 81, p 81 (2022)
diabetes, leptin, nanofibers, taurine, Pharmacy and materia medica, and RS1-441
Diabetes poses a high risk for debilitating complications in neural tissues, regulating glucose uptake through insulin-dependent and predominantly insulin-independent pathways. Supramolecular nanostructures provide a flexible strategy for combinatorial regulation of glycemia. Here, we compare the effects of free insulin to insulin bound to positively charged nanofibers comprised of self-assembling amino acid compounds (AACs) with an antioxidant-modified side chain moiety (AAC2) in both in vitro and in vivo models of type 1 diabetes. Free AAC2, free human insulin (hINS) and AAC2-bound-human insulin (AAC2-hINS) were tested in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes. AAC2-hINS acted as a complex and exhibited different properties compared to free AAC2 or hINS. Mice treated with the AAC2-hINS complex were devoid of hypoglycemic episodes, had improved levels of insulin in circulation and in the brain, and increased expression of neurotransmitter taurine transporter, Slc6a6. Consequently, treatment with AAC2-hINS markedly advanced both physical and cognitive performance in mice with STZ-induced and genetic type 1 diabetes compared to treatments with free AAC2 or hINS. This study demonstrates that the flexible nanofiber AAC2 can serve as a therapeutic platform for the combinatorial treatment of diabetes and its complications.
Fibroblasts are stromal cells found in virtually every tissue and organ of the body. For many years, these cells were often considered to be secondary in functional importance to parenchymal cells. Over the past 2 decades, focused research into the roles of fibroblasts has revealed important roles for these cells in the homeostasis of healthy tissue, and has demonstrated that activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is a key step in disease initiation and progression in many tissues, with fibrosis now recognized as not only an outcome of disease, but also a central contributor to tissue dysfunction, particularly in the heart and lungs. With a growing understanding of both fibroblast and myofibroblast heterogeneity, and the deciphering of the humoral and mechanical cues that impact the phenotype of these cells, fibroblast biology is rapidly becoming a major focus in biomedical research. In this review, we provide an overview of fibroblast and myofibroblast biology, particularly in the heart, and including a discussion of pathophysiological processes such as fibrosis and scarring. We then discuss the central role of Canadian researchers in moving this field forwards, particularly in cardiac fibrosis, and highlight some of the major contributions of these individuals to our understanding of fibroblast and myofibroblast biology in health and disease.
Mohammad Miraj, Faizan Kashoo, Shakir Saleem, Msaad Alzhrani, Ahmad Alanazi, Hosam Alzahrani, Mohammad Abu Shaphe, Mehrunnisha Ahmad, Fuzail Ahmad, Abdul Rahim Shaik, Ahmed Almansour, Mohamed Sherif Sirajudeen, Shady Abdullah Alshewaier, Mazen Alqahtani, Shabir Ahmad Mir, Mohammad Siddiq, Danah Alyahya, and Riyaz Ahamed Shaik
Journal of King Saud University: Science, Vol 34, Iss 5, Pp 102031- (2022)
Night eating syndrome, Binge eating, Psychological symptoms, Depression, Anxiety, Impulsiveness, Science (General), and Q1-390
The objective of this meta-analysis was to find out the prevalence of Night Eating Syndrome (NES) associated with psychological disorders among university students. Extensive search of database yielded 1541 articles matching the search keywords, out of which were 1528 were excluded due to difference in population, outcome, and study design. At the end, only 13 articles were retrieved which aligned with the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of NES associated with psychological disorders in 9432 participants was 8.2% (95% CI 4.9: 13.4) but there was high level of heterogeneity. Female university students had a higher prevalence of the disorder (7.2%) with a high degree of heterogeneity (τ2 = 0.687, I2 = 96%, P
Nawaf Almutairi, Ahamd Alanazi, Mohammed Seyam, Faizan Zaffar Kashoo, Danah Alyahya, and Radhakrishnan Unnikrishnan
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Vol 27, Iss 1, Pp 1-8 (2022)
Core muscles strength, Dynamic balance, Hospital staff, Miscellaneous systems and treatments, and RZ409.7-999
Abstract Background Healthcare workers are at the risk of developing weakness in core muscles and balance disturbance due to stress at the workplace. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between core muscle strength measured with a plank test and dynamic balance assessed with the modified Star Excursion Balance Test (MSEBT) among hospital staff. A convenience sample of 27 healthy male employees at Rabigh General Hospital participated in the study; participants performed MSEBT and plank tests in the gym of the physical therapy department at the hospital. Results The mean age of the 27 participants was 32.19, standard deviation (SD) 4.16 years; mean height was 171.15, SD 6.39 cm; mean weight was 72.37, SD 11 kg; and body mass index was 24.73, SD 3.62 kg/m2. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a positive significant correlation between scores on the plank test with leg reach scores on MSEBT. The data showed a highest correlation between scores on plank test with dominant anterior leg reach scores on MSEBT (r = 0.446, p = 0.010), and lowest with non-dominant anterior leg reach scores on MSEBT (r = 0.335, p = 0.044). Conclusion Weak to moderate positive significant correlation between the plank test of isometric core muscle strength and both the right and dominant of the anterior, posteromedial, and composite score on the MSEBT of the lower limb and significantly with non-dominant anterior reach. There was no significant difference between the administrative and health practitioner on the plank test or MSEBT.
Nazish Masud, Shahad Alenezi, Ohoud Alsayari, Deemah Alghaith, Rana Alshehri, Danah Albarrak, and Sami Al-Nasser
Frontiers in Education, Vol 7 (2022)
medical students, medical schools, social accountability, social responsibility, medical education, Education (General), and L7-991
BackgroundGlobally, there is a rising interest in the concept of social accountability (SA). The literature evaluating SA of medical schools is limited; however, some international studies have revealed a lack of understanding of SA by medical students. This study evaluated the perception of SA among medical students at a governmental university in Saudi Arabia.MethodA cross-sectional study with 336 currently enrolled medical students was conducted from September 2020 to May 2021. The data were collected using an electronic survey comprised of the THEnet questionnaire that included 12 items to assess the perception of SA and some demographic variables. The total score was categorized into four groups and compared with the demographic profile of students.ResultsOut of the 336 participants, the mean age was 21.26 ± 0.5 years, with most students in the 19–21 age group (n = 154, 46%), and 189 (56.3%) were males. In addition, preclinical and clinical students had similar representation: 170 (51%) and 166 (49%), respectively. Most participants (173, 52%) scored in the 18–36 range, reflecting good perceived SA. The demographic profile of students (i.e., age, GPA, and year of study) was significantly associated with perceived SA (p = 0.003, 0.002, and < 0.001, respectively).ConclusionThe study concludes that most medical students had a good level of perceived SA about their institution. The preclinical year students exhibited a better perception of SA. The final-year students were more critical about the SA of the institution compared to other students.
Shams Marzouq Alotaibi, Nasser Waleed Alobaida, Danah Saleh Aljomah, Mohammed AlShahrani, and Ameen Binnasser
Otolaryngology Case Reports, Vol 23, Iss , Pp 100417- (2022)
Foreign bodies, Respiratory tract, Bronchoscopy, Tracheostomy, Case report, Otorhinolaryngology, and RF1-547
Aspiration of foreign body into the airway is a common emergency in pediatric population and has high risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinical presentation of foreign body aspiration varies between children. Some children may present to emergency department with acute life-threatening presentations that require immediate intervention, while others might have long term coarse of symptoms that were misdiagnosed and mistreated for long time. Variation of clinical presentations based on location of dislodged foreign body in the airway tree and size of the aspirated foreign body. Large impacted foreign body creates extra challenge and possible complications during attempt of retrieval via endoscopy alone. We report a case of large aspirated foreign body that had multiple failed attempts of endoscopic removal, and eventually retrieved using combined endoscopic and open approach without tracheostomy. This technique is safe and efficient in cases that failed conventional endoscopy due to large foreign body size.
Shahnaz Hasan, Gokulakannan Kandasamy, Danah Alyahya, Asma Alonazi, Azfar Jamal, Amir Iqbal, Radhakrishnan Unnikrishnan, and Hariraja Muthusamy
PeerJ, Vol 10, p e13588 (2022)
Strength, Functional performance, Sprint, Collegiate male football players, Plyometric training, NMES, and Medicine
Background The study’s objective was to analyze the influence of an 8-week neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) with a plyometric (PT) and strength training (ST) program on muscular, sprint, and functional performances in collegiate male football players. Methods Sixty collegiate male football players participated in this randomized controlled trial single-blind study. All the participants were randomly divided into two groups: (1) NMES group (Experimental, n = 30) who received NMES assisted ST and (2) sham NMES group (Control, n = 30) who received sham NMES assisted ST. In addition, participants from both groups received a PT program; both groups received intervention on three days a week for 8-weeks. The study’s outcomes, such as muscular, sprint, and functional performances, were assessed using a strength test (STN) for quadriceps muscle, sprint test (ST), and single-leg triple hop test (SLTHT), respectively, at baseline pre-intervention and 8-week post-intervention. The interaction between group and time was identified using a mixed design (2 × 2) ANOVA. Results Significant difference found across the two time points for the scores of STN: F (1.58) = 5,479.70, p < 0.05; SLTHT: F (1.58) = 118.17, p < 0.05; and ST: F (1.58) = 201.63, p < 0.05. Similarly, the significant differences were found between groups averaged across time for the scores of STN: F (1.58) = 759.62, p < 0.05 and ST: F (1.58) = 10.08, p < 0.05. In addition, after 8-week of training, Cohen’s d observed between two groups a large to medium treatment’s effect size for the outcome STN (d = 10.84) and ST (d = 1.31). However, a small effect size was observed only for the SLTHT (d = 0.613). Conclusions Findings suggest that the effect of PT and ST with either NMES or sham NMES are equally capable of enhancing muscular, sprint, and functional performances in collegiate male football players. However, PT and ST with NMES have shown an advantage over PT and ST with sham NMES in improving muscular performance and sprint performance among the same participants.
Rania Itani, Samar Karout, Hani M. J. Khojah, Makram Rabah, Mohamad B. Kassab, Francine K. Welty, Mazen AlBaghdadi, Haitham Khraishah, Faris El-Dahiyat, Salman Alzayani, Yousef S. Khader, Mohammad S. Alyahya, Danah Alsane, Rana Abu-Farha, Tareq L. Mukattash, Tarek Soukarieh, Mohamad Fawzi Awad, Reem Awad, Abir Wehbi, Fatima Abbas, Hadi El Mais, Huda El Mais, and Lina Karout
BMC Public Health, Vol 22, Iss 1, Pp 1-12 (2022)
Government, Perception, Middle East, Arab countries, COVID-19, Level of satisfaction, Public aspects of medicine, and RA1-1270
Abstract Background Public acceptance of governmental measures are key to controlling the spread of infectious diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a significant burden on healthcare systems for high-income countries as well as low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The ability of LMICs to respond to the challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic has been limited and may have affected the impact of governmental strategies to control the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate and compare public opinion on the governmental COVID-19 response of high and LMICs in the Middle East and benchmark it to international countries. Methods An online, self-administered questionnaire was distributed among different Middle Eastern Arab countries. Participants’ demographics and level of satisfaction with governmental responses to COVID-19 were analyzed and reported. Scores were benchmarked against 19 international values. Results A total of 7395 responses were included. Bahrain scored highest for satisfaction with the governmental response with 38.29 ± 2.93 on a scale of 40, followed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (37.13 ± 3.27), United Arab Emirates (36.56 ± 3.44), Kuwait (35.74 ± 4.85), Jordan (23.08 ± 6.41), and Lebanon (15.39 ± 5.28). Participants’ country of residence was a significant predictor of the satisfaction score (P