Medical records -- Access control, Electrocardiogram -- Methods, Electrocardiogram -- Safety and security measures, Electrocardiography -- Methods, Electrocardiography -- Safety and security measures, and Authentication -- Methods
1. Introduction The reliability of automatic person identification has become critical in our life, considering the necessary security for the cases of financial transactions, access control, travelling, and so forth. [...] Traditional means for identity validation (PIN codes, passwords), and physiological and behavioral biometric characteristics (fingerprint, iris, and speech) are susceptible to hacker attacks and/or falsification. This paper presents a method for person verification/identification based on correlation of present-to-previous limb ECG leads: I ([r.sub.I]), II ([r.sub.II]), calculated from them first principal ECG component ([r.sub.PCA]), linear and nonlinear combinations between [r.sub.I], [r.sub.II], and [r.sub.PCA]. For the verification task, the one-to-one scenario is applied and threshold values for [r.sub.I], [r.sub.II], and [r.sub.PCA] and their combinations are derived. The identification task supposes one-to-many scenario and the tested subject is identified according to the maximal correlation with a previously recorded ECG in a database. The population based ECG-ILSA database of 540 patients (147 healthy subjects, 175 patients with cardiac diseases, and 218 with hypertension) has been considered. In addition a common reference PTB dataset (14 healthy individuals) with short time interval between the two acquisitions has been taken into account. The results on ECG-ILSA database were satisfactory with healthy people, and there was not a significant decrease in nonhealthy patients, demonstratingthe robustness of the proposed method. With PTB database, the method provides an identification accuracy of 92.9% and a verification sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 89.9%.