Guimier A, de Pontual L, Braddock SR, Torti E, Pérez-Jurado LA, Muñoz-Cabello P, Arumí M, Monaghan KG, Lee H, Wang LK, Pluym ID, Lynch SA, Stals K, Ellard S, Muller C, Houyel L, Cohen L, Lyonnet S, Bajolle F, Amiel J, and Gordon CT
Human molecular genetics [Hum Mol Genet] 2023 Jan 13; Vol. 32 (3), pp. 353-356.
Humans, Heart Defects, Congenital, and Truncus Arteriosus, Persistent
In this retrospective observational study, we analysed a community outbreak of impetigo with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with additional resistance to fusidic acid (first-line treatment). The outbreak occurred between June 2018 and January 2020 in the eastern part of the Netherlands with an epidemiological link to three cases from the north-western part. Forty nine impetigo cases and eight carrier cases were identified, including 47 children. All but one impetigo case had community-onset of symptoms. Pharmacy prescription data for topical mupirocin and fusidic acid and GP questionnaires suggested an underestimated outbreak size. The 57 outbreak isolates were identified by the Dutch MRSA surveillance as MLVA-type MT4627 and sequence type 121, previously reported only once in 2014. Next-generation sequencing revealed they contained a fusidic acid resistance gene, exfoliative toxin genes and an epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor gene. Whole-genome multilocus sequence typing revealed genetic clustering of all 19 sequenced isolates from the outbreak region and isolates from the three north-western cases. The allelic distances between these Dutch isolates and international isolates were high. This outbreak shows the appearance of community-onset MRSA strains with additional drug resistance and virulence factors in a country with a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.
Kawagoe, James C, Abrams, Adelaine E, Lourie, Austin P, and Walse, Spencer S
Pest Management Science; Jul2022, Vol. 78 Issue 7, p3090-3097, 8p
STINKBUGS, BROWN marmorated stink bug, CARBON dioxide, FUMIGATION, ATMOSPHERIC carbon dioxide, HEMIPTERA, and DILUTION
BACKGROUND: The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, has caused significant agricultural damage to numerous hosts, so agricultural producers seek to limit its spread. Where established, BMSB can also cause substantial urban and commercial disturbance, as overwintering adults may seek refuge inside dwellings, covered spaces, vehicles, and consignments. Phytosanitary authorities are most concerned with the importation of 'hitchhiking' adults in this refugia, with certain countries requiring a quarantine treatment to mitigate risk. This study explores fumigation with ethyl formate, applied as 16.7% by mass dilution in carbon dioxide, for control of adult BMSB. RESULTS: The induction of diapause, to simulate overwintering physiology, resulted in 2‐ and 3‐fold increases in the tolerance of adults toward this ethyl formate fumigation at 10 ± 0.5 °C (x¯±2s) lasting for 8 and 12 h, respectively. However, a decreased tolerance (0.7‐fold) of diapausing specimens was observed for a 4‐h duration. Diapausing and nondiapausing adult BMSB can be controlled at the probit 9 level if the headspace concentration of ethyl formate, [EF], in the carbon dioxide mixture is maintained ≥7.68 mg L−1 for 12 h at 10 ± 0.5 °C (x¯±2s). If the duration is shortened to 4 h, [EF] must be maintained ≥14.73 mg L−1 over the course of fumigation. CONCLUSION: The toxicity of ethyl formate in this mixture can be distinct for different physiological states of the same life stage, as evidenced by a ca. 3‐fold increase in the Haber's z parameter for adult BMSB when in diapause. Respective to the physiological state of adults, this study identifies how the applied dose and/or treatment duration can be modulated (i.e. tuned) to ensure adequate toxicological efficacy toward BMSB infesting hosts or refuge at temperatures ca. >10 °C. Published 2022. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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Most stink bugs (Pentatomidae) are polyphagous and feed on an array of cultivated and non-cultivated plants. Among the last, weed plants play an important role in their bioecology and pest status, particularly in the Neotropics, in where stink bugs are active during most of the year. In spite of this, the weeds role is, in general, underestimated. In this review article we present and discuss the importance of weed plants present in row crops and pasture lands, affecting stink bugs pests of major commodities in the Neotropics. We surveyed the literature and other sources (unpublished records) on the presence of stink bugs on weed plants. These plants were ranked as hosts (allowing nymph development and/or adult reproduction) or as associated plants (providing some nutrients/water/shelter, but not allowing nymph and/or adult performance). The following stink bug pest species were covered: The green-bellied stink bugs, Diceraeus furcatus (F.) and D. melacanthus Dallas; the Neotropical brown sink bug, Euschistus heros (F.); the brown-winged stink bug, Edessa meditabunda (F.); the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the rice stink bugs, Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) and O. ypsilongriseus (De Geer); the red-banded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood); the rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris Stål; and the red-shouldered stink bug, Thyanta perditor (F.). The survey showed plants from 16 different families interacting with the 10 species of pest pentatomids analyzed, with the greater number of species of Fabaceae (16+), Poaceae (14+), and Asteraceae (7). Data demonstrated that, in the modern landscape scenario of agricultural areas in the Neotropics, highly polyphagous species, such as N. viridula, tend to suffer greater impact, while the oligophagous species, E. heros, D. furcatus, and D. melacanthus, in contrast, tend to be favored. The management of weed plants through the increase use of herbicides, multiple cropping, and the non-tillage cultivation systems seems to be the major factors influencing the interactions of stink bugs and weeds, changing the population dynamics of pest stink bugs in the Neotropics, and, consequently their pest status. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]