Waste management, Hazardous substances, Demographic surveys, Environmental risk assessment, Demographic transition, Environmental sociology, Racism, Role playing, and Social groups
This article discusses he concept of "environmental equity" which assessing demographics concerning the treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes (TSDF). Recent evidence of environmental inequity comes from a variety of studies showing that environmental risks, known or potential, are distributed differently across demographic groups. There are two major issues of debate in this context: first, the environmental racism and second, regarding TSDF. The often heated debate concerning TSDF has focused on inequity and on the potentially discriminatory nature of facility locations. Although inequitable distributions are not conclusive evidence of intentional prejudice, it is desirable to understand and document the distribution of facilities and the precise nature of any inequity across social groups, which is the main concern of this article. The first step in a geographic analysis is suggested to determine the appropriate area to be used as a unit of analysis. It is suggested that the judgment of equity then rests on prejudice and undue risk or harm. Demographic studies, however, play a critical role in assessing the equitable distribution of such facilities and evaluating prejudicial exposure to potential harm or benefit.
Economics, Economic development, Economic sectors, Economic systems, and Well-being
Disarticulation refers to the juxtaposition of economic sectors with different levels of development and productivity. Disarticulation is hypothesized to have a negative effect on social well-being, net of economic development, because it inhibits the spread effects generally thought to be associated with economic growth. Findings are in accord with this hypothesis, although the relationship is complex. The strongest effects of disarticulation are found among the poorest nations. The concept of disarticulation opens a new and promising avenue of research that may help to resolve contradictory findings of recent research on the political economy of growth. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Economic development, Regression analysis, Fertility decline, Infant mortality, Birth control, and Developing countries
The article examines the role of economic disarticulation on fertility levels in less developed countries. The present analysis in the article extends the tradition of research by arguing that the degree of disarticulation provides theoretically more powerful and empirically more accurate way to operationalize the hypothesized distributional effects on fertility levels. Several sets of variables, including child and infant mortality levels, rational cost-benefit calculations at the family level, and female status have been shown to affect fertility rates. Economic disarticulation provides a theoretically more powerful and empirically more accurate way to operationalize the relationship between economic growth and fertility rates in less developed countries. The article shows that disarticulation is indeed a significant predictor of fertility rates, holding constant the level of development and controlling for previous levels of fertility. The article also presents regression analysis of the total fertility and family planning.