Waste management, Hazardous substances, Demographic surveys, Environmental risk assessment, Demographic transition, Environmental sociology, Racism, Role playing, and Social groups
This article discusses he concept of "environmental equity" which assessing demographics concerning the treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes (TSDF). Recent evidence of environmental inequity comes from a variety of studies showing that environmental risks, known or potential, are distributed differently across demographic groups. There are two major issues of debate in this context: first, the environmental racism and second, regarding TSDF. The often heated debate concerning TSDF has focused on inequity and on the potentially discriminatory nature of facility locations. Although inequitable distributions are not conclusive evidence of intentional prejudice, it is desirable to understand and document the distribution of facilities and the precise nature of any inequity across social groups, which is the main concern of this article. The first step in a geographic analysis is suggested to determine the appropriate area to be used as a unit of analysis. It is suggested that the judgment of equity then rests on prejudice and undue risk or harm. Demographic studies, however, play a critical role in assessing the equitable distribution of such facilities and evaluating prejudicial exposure to potential harm or benefit.
Economics, Economic development, Economic sectors, Economic systems, and Well-being
Disarticulation refers to the juxtaposition of economic sectors with different levels of development and productivity. Disarticulation is hypothesized to have a negative effect on social well-being, net of economic development, because it inhibits the spread effects generally thought to be associated with economic growth. Findings are in accord with this hypothesis, although the relationship is complex. The strongest effects of disarticulation are found among the poorest nations. The concept of disarticulation opens a new and promising avenue of research that may help to resolve contradictory findings of recent research on the political economy of growth. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Economic development, Regression analysis, Fertility decline, Infant mortality, Birth control, and Developing countries
The article examines the role of economic disarticulation on fertility levels in less developed countries. The present analysis in the article extends the tradition of research by arguing that the degree of disarticulation provides theoretically more powerful and empirically more accurate way to operationalize the hypothesized distributional effects on fertility levels. Several sets of variables, including child and infant mortality levels, rational cost-benefit calculations at the family level, and female status have been shown to affect fertility rates. Economic disarticulation provides a theoretically more powerful and empirically more accurate way to operationalize the relationship between economic growth and fertility rates in less developed countries. The article shows that disarticulation is indeed a significant predictor of fertility rates, holding constant the level of development and controlling for previous levels of fertility. The article also presents regression analysis of the total fertility and family planning.
Journal of Health Communication. Apr Supplement 2, Vol. 15, p80-92. 13p. 2 Black and White Photographs, 4 Charts, 1 Graph.
Touch screens, Computer input-output equipment, Primary care, Health literacy, Health education research, Patient education, Computer assisted instruction, and Human-computer interaction
Self-administration of a multimedia health literacy measure in clinic settings is a novel concept. Demonstrated ease of use and acceptability will help predicate the future value of this strategy. We previously demonstrated the acceptability of a “Talking Touchscreen” for health status assessment. For this study, we adapted the touchscreen for self-administration of a new health literacy measure. Primary care patients (n = 610) in clinics for underserved populations completed health status and health literacy questions on the Talking Touchscreen and participated in an interview. Participants were 51% women, 10% age 60+, 67% African American, 18% without a high school education, and 14% without any prior computer experience. The majority (93%) had no difficulty using the touchscreen, including those who were computer-naive (87%). Most rated the screen design as very good or excellent (72%), including computer-naive patients (71%) and older patients (75%). Acceptability of the touchscreen did not differ by health literacy level. The Talking Touchscreen was easy to use and acceptable for self-administration of a new health literacy measure. Self-administration should reduce staff burden and costs, interview bias, and feelings of embarrassment by those with lower literacy. Tools like the Talking Touchscreen may increase exposure of underserved populations to new technologies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]