Greenhouse gas mitigation, Prices, Investments, Carbon, and Electricity
Poland is on track to meet its international greenhouse-gas emissions commitments. However, it will need to cut emissions significantly in the future, if the European Commission's proposal on the Low Carbon Roadmap is adopted. Policies should ensure that the country's substantial reduction potential, mainly linked to the energy sector's high emissions intensity, and implying overall abatement costs above the EU-average, is realised in a least-cost fashion by imposing an economywide single carbon price. This stands in contrast with current explicit and implicit carbon prices, which vary widely across different sectors of the economy. Crucial to least-cost abatement is also a high responsiveness to the EU-ETS carbon price signal. While Poland has made good progress in complying with EU regulations related to the energy sector, the large share of public ownership and the lack of effective separation between electricity producers and distributors may blur the price signal for investment decisions in generation capacity. The isolation of the Polish electricity market implies a need for more investment in low-emission technologies in Poland to achieve a given emissions-reduction target, whereas a deeper integration with neighbouring electricity markets would spread the burden more efficiently across countries. The cost-efficiency advantage of uniform support to renewables via green certificates should be retained to minimise abatement costs. Government policies aimed at a higher share of nuclear power and natural gas from shale formations need to take fully into account tail risks and the short- and longterm environmental costs of the use of the former and fully consider environmental risks related to extraction of the latter. Energy efficiency policies can help to address market failure but should not be allowed to distort relative carbon prices. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Prices, Taxation, Price indexes, Petroleum products, Electricity, Coal, and Natural gas
The article focuses on the definitions and methods used in calculating prices, taxes and indices for several energy products such as oil, electricity, coal and natural gas. The methodology for calculating the indices of real energy-end prices is discussed. The energy products which are included in the weekly reporting system of the European Commission are enumerated.
Power resources, Prices, Energy industries, Petroleum product sales & prices, Petroleum as fuel, Diesel fuels, Coal, and Electricity
Presents charts on energy end-use prices in U.S. dollars per toe, converted using exchange rates from 1995 to 2004. Price of low sulphur fuel oil for industry use in Japan in the fourth quarter of 2004; Cost of the commercial automotive diesel oil in Italy in 2003; Price of industrial steam coal per toe in Finland in 2000; Price of industrial electricity in Hungary in 1995.