MEXICAN Americans -- History, LABOR movement, LABOR movement -- History, and UNITED States
This essay examines Mexican immigrant political and labor activism in Chicago through the life of Refugio Roman Martinez, an organizer for the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) who was deported by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Martinez's history suggests that Mexican immigrant CIO members tended to be proud Mexican citizens motivated to join US unions by their understanding of the Mexican Revolution and rise of Mexican President Lazaro Cardenas (1934-1940). These Mexican immigrants campaigned for labor and immigration improvements and encouraged Mexicans to enter unions to attain equity; however, they concurrently rebuffed US naturalization as a means to achieve these ends. Indeed, Mexican immigrants fought for labor rights while rejecting US citizenship and did so in part because they were conscious of US hegemony and found it too intellectually problematic to become US citizens and to appeal to the US state for justice. As the United States entered the Cold War, immigrants paid a price for joining the US labor movement while retaining their foreign citizenship. From the Southwest to the Midwest, the INS disciplined immigrant labor leaders through deportation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
HISPANIC American politicians, MINORITY politicians, UNITED States elections, POLITICAL candidates, LEGISLATIVE bodies, POLITICAL science, VOTING, and POLITICAL campaigns
The article presents an examination of the election of Latino politicians in the United States. It explores the conditions under which Hispanic American political candidates have been elected to the U.S. Congress and state legislatures in political districts with non-Latino majorities. It examines differences between Latino-majority and non-Latino-majority districts and discusses how factors such political vacancies, minority coalitions, multi-candidate elections, deracialized campaign strategies and the surnames have contributed to the election of Latino candidates.
MEXICAN American art, HISPANIC American art, ART conferences, ART exhibitions, and ART history
The article presents the author's views on Chicana/o and Latina/o art in the U.S., highlighting her experience of being a lecturer at the fifth biennial Latino Art Now! conference held in Chicago, Illinois in April 2016. The history of Chicana/o and Latino/o art is discussed as well as several art exhibitions. Also discussed are her experience of working with journals published by professional body College Art Association and publications on Chicano and Latino art.