Katarina Mostarac, Zvonko Kavran, and Estera Rakić
Promet (Zagreb), Vol 31, Iss 2, Pp 173-183 (2019)
universal postal service, accessibility indicator, gravity model, distance-decay parameter, Transportation engineering, and TA1001-1280
Universal service providers have an obligation to provide a minimum required set of postal services – known as universal service obligation. To ensure universal service obligation, regulatory measures (criteria) which service providers must fulfil are often set up. In this paper, a geographical analysis of these criteria is conducted using current regulatory framework in the Republic of Croatia as an example. Based on the framework of the gravity model, accessibility of postal service is presented. The goal of the proposed research is to investigate the application of the gravity model for determining postal service accessibility, with special emphasis on rural areas. To our knowledge, this method has not been used in previous studies to determine accessibility of postal services. The results of the applied model could be used in future planning of access density criteria with various transportation modes.
Miira Niska, K.C Prakash, Anna Siukola, Hanna Kosonen, Jari Luomanen, Kirsi Lumme-Sandt, Subas Neupane, Pirjo Nikander, and Clas-Håkan Nygård
Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, Vol 10, Iss 1 (2020)
Health, Working Environment & Wellbeing, Organization & Management, Labor. Work. Working class, and HD4801-8943
While policymakers emphasize the need to delay retirement age, numerous traditional industries, among them postal services, emphasize the need for employee downsizings. These can be contradictory needs. Downsizings can reduce work life satisfaction (WLS) among workers, and reduced WLS can decrease willingness to delay retirement age. In this cross-sectional study, we explore WLS trajectories of former postal service workers by analyzing quantitative survey data (N = 201) and qualitative interview data (N = 40). In the data, workers aged 50–67 years evaluate their lifelong work satisfaction. The results of the quantitative and the qualitative study complement and mirror each other. Same trajectories of WLS were identified in both data. One-third of the survey respondents reported decreasing WLS, which according to the qualitative data relates to employee downsizings. The article highlights the importance of acknowledging contextual elements of work satisfaction measurement and the benefits of combining methodological traditions to understand the longer-term dynamics involved