Abdulaziz M. F. Shayea, Amna A. Alshatti, Danah H. Alfadhli, Almutairi Fatimah Ibrahim, Mariam Kh. Almutairi, and Mohammed Sh. Nadar
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, Vol 18, Iss 1, Pp 1-17 (2023)
Trigger fingers, Metabolic syndrome, Smoking, inflammation, Orthopedic surgery, RD701-811, Diseases of the musculoskeletal system, and RC925-935
Abstract Purpose To investigate the health-related factors and analyze the expression of epigenetic related genes and inflammatory genes in metabolic syndrome Trigger Finger (TF) and smoker TF. Methods Samples from patients’ fingers with symptomatic TF were collected. There were seven groups: healthy control group, carpal tunnel syndrome (as a control for gene expression analysis), TF, diabetic TF, hypertensive TF, dyslipidemic TF and smoker TF. The expression levels of epigenetic related genes and inflammatory genes in metabolic syndrome TF and smoker TF were evaluated by the reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires, disability of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) and numeric pain rating scale were given to the participants to fill out. Results There was a significant increase in hand dysfunction in the metabolic TF groups and smoker group compared to the TF group (p
Marwan Mansoor Ali Mohammed, Danah Almayeef, Dania Abbas, Maha Ali, Maha Haissam, Rawya Mabrook, Riham Nizar, Tuleen Eldoahji, and Natheer Hashim Al-Rawi
International Dental Journal, Vol 73, Iss 4, Pp 481-488 (2023)
Periodontal disease, Chronic migraine, Headache, Leptin, Chronification, Dentistry, and RK1-715
Migraine is a neurologic illness that produces intense throbbing pain on one side of the head and affects roughly 1 billion people worldwide. Recent research indicates a relationship between periodontitis and chronic migraines. This study aimed to review the association between chronic migraines and periodontitis through a systematic literature review.Four research databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest, and SpringerLink) were searched according to PRISMA guidelines to retrieve the studies included in this review. A search strategy was developed to answer the study question with appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria. Out of 34 published studies, 8 studies were included in this review. Three of the studies were cross-sectional, 3 were case-control, and 2 were clinical report and medical hypothesis papers. Seven of the 8 included studies showed that there is an association between periodontal disease and chronic migraine. The elevated blood levels of some biomarkers such as leptins, ProCalcitonin (proCT), calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRPs), Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), and Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor-like Weak Inducer Of Apoptosis (sTWEAK) play a significant role in this association. The limitations include a small sample size, the influence of anti-inflammatory drugs, and a self-reported headache measure that is subject to misclassification bias.This systematic review reveals a supposed correlation between periodontal disease and chronic migraine, as evidenced by various biomarkers and inflammatory mediators. This suggests that periodontal disease could potentially contribute to the development of chronic migraine. However, to further assess the potential benefits of periodontal treatment in patients with chronic migraine, additional longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes and interventional studies are needed.
Ebtihal Elameen Eltyeb, Majidah Hussain Asiri Halawi, Thekra Badr Mohammed Tashari, Khaled Alharbi, Ohoud Saad Alsayari, Danah Abdullah Albarrak, Raga Abdelkhalig Eltayeb, Ali Ali Ahmed Al-Makramani, and Isameldin Elamin M. Medani
Pediatric Reports, Vol 15, Iss 3, Pp 431-441 (2023)
birth defects, pattern, prevalence, Saudi Arabia, Medicine, Pediatrics, and RJ1-570
Introduction: Birth defects are a significant concern since they can lead to permanent disability and death. This study comprehensively reviews the prevalence and patterns of birth defects in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A systematic analysis of the literature retrieved from three databases (Pub Med, Science Direct, and the Saudi digital library) published between 1989 and 2022 was performed. Observational studies that addressed the prevalence and patterns of birth defects in Saudi Arabia were chosen based on the eligibility criteria, while systematic reviews, review articles, non-relevant articles, and studies that did not fulfill the eligibility criteria were excluded. Quality and risk of bias were evaluated based on the JBI and GRADE tools, respectively. Results: We identified 26 eligible publications of 1277 records that included 297,668 patients from different regions of Saudi Arabia. The highest overall prevalence of birth defects was 46.5 per 1000 live births compared to a lowest rate of 8.6 per 1000 in one study. Several studies have reported positive associations of consanguinity, maternal folic acid supplementation, family history of birth defects or genetic abnormalities, and maternal co-morbidities. The most frequent birth defects include cardiac, genitourinary, craniofacial, and nervous system defects. Conclusion: Robust findings have improved our understanding of the prevalence and pattern of birth defects in Saudi Arabia. Importantly, future studies will likely require multicenter collaboration to arrive at appropriate sample sizes in the context of the effects of risk factors on elevated prevalence. Furthermore, quantitative data require careful evaluation in more complex statistical models.
Munairah Alshaibani, *, Mays Alajmi, *, Noura Alabduljalil, Hajar Alajmi, Yousef Alsalem, Danah Aloqab, Hamad Alawadhi, Sara Sayed Ali, Yaqoub Sharhan, Ahmed Alzeeny, and Ali H. Ziyab
Tobacco Induced Diseases, Vol 21, Iss July, Pp 1-13 (2023)
electronic cigarettes, adults, dependence, harm, addictiveness, Diseases of the respiratory system, RC705-779, Neoplasms. Tumors. Oncology. Including cancer and carcinogens, and RC254-282
Introduction Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become one of the most common forms of nicotine delivery used by youth and young adults worldwide. Given the lack of epidemiologic data in Kuwait, this study sought to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use, assess perceptions of harm and addictiveness of e-cigarettes, measure the level of dependence on e-cigarettes and assess factors associated with dependence level among adults. Methods A cross-sectional study enrolled adults (n=3032, aged ≥18 years) living in Kuwait using a web-based questionnaire. Participants self-reported ever and current (past 30-day) e-cigarette use and self-completed the 10-item Penn State E-cigarette Dependence Index. Associations were evaluated using multinomial logistic regression. Results The prevalence of ever and current e-cigarette use was estimated to be 40.2% (1220/3032) and 29.4% (892/3032), respectively. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use was higher in males compared to females (47.6% vs 14.4%, p
Dalia A. Gaber, Mahasen A. Radwan, Danah A. Alzughaibi, Jenan A. Alail, Rafa S. Aljumah, Reema M. Aloqla, Sara A. Alkhalifah, and Siham A. Abdoun
Drug Delivery, Vol 30, Iss 1 (2023)
Nanosponges, crosslinker, nanocarrier, cyclodextrin, analgesics, drug efficacy, Therapeutics. Pharmacology, and RM1-950
AbstractCyclodextrin nanosponges are solid nanoparticles, designed by cross-linking of cyclodextrin polymer; it has been used widely as a good delivery system for water insoluble drugs. The aim of this study is to enhance the solubility of Piroxicam (PXM) using β-Cyclodextrin based nanosponges formulations. PXM nanosponge (PXM-NS) formulations were prepared using β-cyclodextrin and carbonyldiimidazole as a cross linker, three ratios of β-cyclodextrin to crosslinker in addition to three drug to nanosponges ratios were tested. Piroxicam nanosponge formulations were characterized for its particle size, zeta potential, physical compatibility and in vitro release. Stability studies at three temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C) were done for optimal formula. Finally, the in vivo analgesic activity and pharmacokinetic parameters of the optimal formula were conducted. The optimized PXM-NS formula (PXM-NS10) showed particle size (362 ± 14.06 nm), polydispersity index (0.0518), zeta potential (17 ± 1.05 mV), and %EE (79.13 ± 4.33). The dissolution study showed a significant increase in the amount of PXM dissolved compared with the unformulated drug. Stability studies confirmed that nanosponge showed accepted stability for 90 days at 4 °C and 25 °C. In vivo analgesic studies verified that there was a significant enhancement in the analgesic response to PXM in mice, and 1.42 fold enhancement in the relative bioavailability of PXM-NS10 as compared to commercial tablets. Nanosponge prepared under optimal conditions is an encouraging formula for increasing the solubility and therefore the bioavailability of Piroxicam.
Science (General), Q1-390, Social sciences (General), and H1-99
Introduction: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is an important and often unrecognized cause of impaired awareness especially in critically ill patients, which can easily be missed. Electroencephalography (EEG) findings in clinically suspected cases are the mainstay of diagnosis. Review summary: The EEG diagnostic criteria for NCSE have evolved over the past three decades. Furthermore, recent advancements in EEG technologies such as continuous EEG monitoring, and emergency department EEG, along with development of different diagnostic criteria, have increased the detection rate for NCSE in suspected cases. However, treating physicians should have a higher index of clinical suspicion and a lower threshold for recommending this valuable investigation. The introduction of different diagnostic criteria has made it easier for electroencephalographers to report NCSE; nevertheless, diagnosis is not always straightforward. This narrative review aimed to define and discuss the available literature on different EEG diagnostic criteria for NCSE. Conclusion: There is a need for further prospective research to strengthen the diagnostic accuracy of the available diagnostic criteria, the modified Salzburg Consensus Criteria for NCSE (mSCNC) and updated American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) 21 criteria, to verify their accuracy to detect NCSE in comatose patients.
Danah ALRabeeah, Aliyah Almomen, Nourah Alzoman, and Maria Arafah
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol 31, Iss 10, Pp 101758- (2023)
Anti-Epileptic drugs, Levetiracetam, Pharmacokinetics, Liver enzymes, High-performance liquid chromatography, Saudi Arabia, Therapeutics. Pharmacology, and RM1-950
Background: Epilepsy is a common global neurological disorder. About 30% of epileptic patients are managed with anti-epileptic Drugs (AEDs). Since 2000, Levetiracetam (LEV) has been marketed around the world as an AED under the brand name Keppra, and recently more generics are found in the Saudi market as cheaper alternatives. The objective of this study is to evaluate the bioequivalence of LEV brand and generics available in the Saudi market in mice. Methods: Pharmacokinetics (PK), liver function test, and behavioral studies were conducted for LEV brand and generic in different groups of Blab/c mice. Results: PK results show a significance difference in PK parameters mostly evidenced with generic 3, then generic 2. The only significant different between Keppra and generic 1 was in T1/2. In addition, Keppra did not significantly increase liver enzymes in comparison to other generics. On the other hand, other generics showed less favorable results in increasing liver enzymes. Keppra reduced the number and intensity of epileptic attacks, had no mortality rate due to epilepsy, and was associated with less sever seizures attacks. Conclusion: Keppra, the brand form of LEV, has better safety and efficacy profiles in mice compared to 3 generics found in the Saudi market. Therefore, we recommend evaluating the same parameters tested in this study in patients utilizing similar generics and brand to establish the existence of bioequivalence between LEV brand and generics.