Keywords Tissue P System; Wireless Sensor Network; Multi-Objective problem; Task Assignment; Decision Support System; Parallel computing; Sustainable computing Abstract The contemporary wireless sensor applications employ a Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network (HeWSN) to achieve its multi-objective missions. Modern wireless nodes constituting the HeWSN are more versatile in terms of its capabilities, functionalities, and applications. Assigning tasks in a dynamic HeWSN environment are challenging due to its inherent heterogeneous properties and capabilities. The investigation of existing task assignment algorithms reveals (i) the majority of the existing task assignment algorithms were designed for the homogeneous environment, (ii) most of the nature-inspired algorithms were built for centralized architecture. Scheduling tasks by existing task assignment algorithms lead to underutilization of resources as well as to the rapid depletion of network resources. To this end, a novel, distributed, heterogeneous task assignment algorithm adhering the modern sensors capabilities, functionalities and sensor application to attain sustainable computing is required. Based on the investigation, Tissue P-System inspired task assignment algorithm for the distributed heterogeneous WSN has been modelled. The experimental analyses of the proposed method have been self-evaluated as well as compared with the corresponding recent benchmark algorithms under various conditions and its performance metrics are analysed. Author Affiliation: Karunya Institute of Technology & Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 114, India * Corresponding author. Article History: Received 18 November 2019; Revised 11 June 2020; Accepted 21 June 2020 (footnote) Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University. Byline: Titus Issac [firstname.lastname@example.org] (*), Salaja Silas, Elijah Blessing Rajsingh
Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) [Medicina (Kaunas)] 2022 Jul 19; Vol. 58 (7). Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Jul 19.
Adult, Computers, Humans, Technology, Transplantation, Autologous methods, Cone-Beam Computed Tomography methods, and Molar, Third surgery
The use of computer-aided rapid prototyping (CARP) models was considered to reduce surgical trauma and improve outcomes when autotransplantation of teeth (ATT) became a viable alternative for dental rehabilitation. However, ATT is considered technique-sensitive due to its series of complicated surgical procedures and unfavorable outcomes in complex cases. This study reported a novel autotransplantation technique of a 28-year-old patient with an unrestorable lower first molar (#36) with double roots. Regardless of a large shape deviation, a lower third molar (#38) with a completely single root formation was used as the donor tooth. ATT was performed with a combined use of virtual simulation, CARP model-based rehearsed surgery, and tooth replica-guided surgery. A 3D virtual model of the donor and recipient site was generated from cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) radiographs prior to surgery for direct virtual superimposition simulation and CARP model fabrication. The virtual simulation indicated that it was necessary to retain cervical alveolar bone during the surgical socket preparation, and an intensive surgical rehearsal was performed on the CARP models. The donor tooth replica was used during the procedure to guide precise socket preparation and avoid periodontal ligament injury. Without an additional fitting trial and extra-alveolar storage, the donor tooth settled naturally into the recipient socket within 30 s. The transplanted tooth showed excellent stability and received routine root canal treatment three weeks post-surgery, and the one-year follow-up examination verified the PDL healing outcome and normal functioning. Patient was satisfied with the transplanted tooth. This cutting-edge technology combines virtual simulation, digital surgery planning, and guided surgery implementation to ensure predictable and minimally invasive therapy in complex cases.
Esquirol L, McNeale D, Douglas T, Vickers CE, and Sainsbury F
ACS synthetic biology [ACS Synth Biol] 2022 Jul 26. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Jul 26.
Protein cages are attractive as molecular scaffolds for the fundamental study of enzymes and metabolons and for the creation of biocatalytic nanoreactors for in vitro and in vivo use. Virus-like particles (VLPs) such as those derived from the P22 bacteriophage capsid protein make versatile self-assembling protein cages and can be used to encapsulate a broad range of protein cargos. In vivo encapsulation of enzymes within VLPs requires fusion to the coat protein or a scaffold protein. However, the expression level, stability, and activity of cargo proteins can vary upon fusion. Moreover, it has been shown that molecular crowding of enzymes inside VLPs can affect their catalytic properties. Consequently, testing of numerous parameters is required for production of the most efficient nanoreactor for a given cargo enzyme. Here, we present a set of acceptor vectors that provide a quick and efficient way to build, test, and optimize cargo loading inside P22 VLPs. We prototyped the system using a yellow fluorescent protein and then applied it to mevalonate kinases (MKs), a key enzyme class in the industrially important terpene (isoprenoid) synthesis pathway. Different MKs required considerably different approaches to deliver maximal encapsulation as well as optimal kinetic parameters, demonstrating the value of being able to rapidly access a variety of encapsulation strategies. The vector system described here provides an approach to optimize cargo enzyme behavior in bespoke P22 nanoreactors. This will facilitate industrial applications as well as basic research on nanoreactor-cargo behavior.
Lab on a chip [Lab Chip] 2022 Jul 12; Vol. 22 (14), pp. 2682-2694. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Jul 12.
Humans, Hydrogels, Microvessels, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Lab-On-A-Chip Devices, and Microtechnology
Reconstruction of 3D vascularized microtissues within microfabricated devices has rapidly developed in biomedical engineering, which can better mimic the tissue microphysiological function and accurately model human diseases in vitro . However, the traditional PDMS-based microfluidic devices suffer from the microfabrication with complex processes and usage limitations of either material properties or microstructure design, which drive the demand for easy processing and more accessible devices with a user-friendly interface. Here, we present an open microfluidic device through a rapid prototyping method by laser cutting in a cost-effective manner with high flexibility and compatibility. This device allows highly efficient and robust hydrogel patterning under a liquid guiding rail by spontaneous capillary action without the need for surface treatment. Different vascularization mechanisms including vasculogenesis and angiogenesis were performed to construct a 3D perfusable microvasculature inside a tissue chamber with various shapes under different microenvironment factors. Furthermore, as a proof-of-concept we have created a vascularized spheroid by placing a monoculture spheroid into the central through-hole of this device, which formed angiogenesis between the spheroid and microvascular network. This open microfluidic device has great potential for mass customization without the need for complex microfabrication equipment in the cleanroom, which can facilitate studies requiring high-throughput and high-content screening.
Lim SW, Choi IS, Lee BN, Ryu J, Park HJ, and Cho JH
American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics [Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop] 2022 Jul; Vol. 162 (1), pp. 108-121. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Mar 11.
Bicuspid transplantation, Child, Female, Humans, Maxilla, Transplantation, Autologous, Malocclusion, Angle Class II surgery, and Periodontal Ligament
Gan R, Cabezas MD, Pan M, Zhang H, Hu G, Clark LG, Jewett MC, and Nicol R
ACS synthetic biology [ACS Synth Biol] 2022 Jun 17; Vol. 11 (6), pp. 2108-2120. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 May 12.
Gene Library, Protein Biosynthesis, Synthetic Biology, High-Throughput Screening Assays, and Microfluidics methods
Engineering regulatory parts for improved performance in genetic programs has played a pivotal role in the development of the synthetic biology cell programming toolbox. Here, we report the development of a novel high-throughput platform for regulatory part prototyping and analysis that leverages the advantages of engineered DNA libraries, cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS), high-throughput emulsion droplet microfluidics, standard flow sorting adapted to screen droplet reactions, and next-generation sequencing (NGS). With this integrated platform, we screened the activity of millions of genetic parts within hours, followed by NGS retrieval of the improved designs. This in vitro platform is particularly valuable for engineering regulatory parts of nonmodel organisms, where in vivo high-throughput screening methods are not readily available. The platform can be extended to multipart screening of complete genetic programs to optimize yield and stability.
ACS applied materials & interfaces [ACS Appl Mater Interfaces] 2022 Mar 30; Vol. 14 (12), pp. 14774-14782. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Mar 17.
This paper demonstrates laser forming, localized heating with a laser to induce plastic deformation, can self-fold 2D printed circuit boards (PCBs) into 3D structures with electronic function. There are many methods for self-folding but few are compatible with electronic materials. We use a low-cost commercial laser writer to both cut and fold a commercial flexible PCB. Laser settings are tuned to select between cutting and folding with higher power resulting in cutting and lower power resulting in localized heating for folding into 3D shapes. Since the thin copper traces used in commercial PCBs are highly reflective and difficult to directly fold, two approaches are explored for enabling folding: plating with a nickel/gold coating or using a single, high-power laser exposure to oxidize the surface and improve laser absorption. We characterized the physical effect of the exposure on the sample as well as the fold angle as a function of laser passes and demonstrate the ability to lift weights comparable with circuit packages and passive components. This technique can form complex, multifold structures with integrated electronics; as a demonstrator, we fold a commercial board with a common timing circuit. Laser forming to add a third dimension to printed circuit boards is an important technology to enable the rapid prototyping of complex 3D electronics.
Piadyk Y, Steers B, Mydlarz C, Salman M, Fuentes M, Khan J, Jiang H, Ozbay K, Bello JP, and Silva C
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) [Sensors (Basel)] 2022 May 17; Vol. 22 (10). Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 May 17.
Humans, Intelligence, and Software
Sensor networks have dynamically expanded our ability to monitor and study the world. Their presence and need keep increasing, and new hardware configurations expand the range of physical stimuli that can be accurately recorded. Sensors are also no longer simply recording the data, they process it and transform into something useful before uploading to the cloud. However, building sensor networks is costly and very time consuming. It is difficult to build upon other people's work and there are only a few open-source solutions for integrating different devices and sensing modalities. We introduce REIP, a Reconfigurable Environmental Intelligence Platform for fast sensor network prototyping. REIP's first and most central tool, implemented in this work, is an open-source software framework, an SDK, with a flexible modular API for data collection and analysis using multiple sensing modalities. REIP is developed with the aim of being user-friendly, device-agnostic, and easily extensible, allowing for fast prototyping of heterogeneous sensor networks. Furthermore, our software framework is implemented in Python to reduce the entrance barrier for future contributions. We demonstrate the potential and versatility of REIP in real world applications, along with performance studies and benchmark REIP SDK against similar systems.
Pleșoianu FA, Pleșoianu CE, Bararu Bojan I, Bojan A, Țăruș A, and Tinică G
Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland) [Bioengineering (Basel)] 2022 May 06; Vol. 9 (5). Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 May 06.
Despite evidence associating the use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices with increased survival and quality of life in patients with advanced heart failure (HF), significant complications and high costs limit their clinical use. We aimed to design an innovative MCS device to address three important needs: low cost, minimally invasive implantation techniques, and low risk of infection. We used mathematical modeling to calculate the pump characteristics to deliver variable flows at different pump diameters, turbomachinery design software CFturbo (2020 R2.4 CFturbo GmbH, Dresden, Germany) to create the conceptual design of the pump, computational fluid dynamics analysis with Solidworks Flow Simulation to in silico test pump performance, Solidworks (Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks Corporation, Waltham, MA, USA) to further refine the design, 3D printing with polycarbonate filament for the initial prototype, and a stereolithography printer (Form 2, Formlabs, Somerville, MA, USA) for the second variant materialization. We present the concept, design, and early prototyping of a low-cost, minimally invasive, fully implantable in a subcutaneous pocket MCS device for long-term use and partial support in patients with advanced HF which unloads the left heart into the arterial system containing a rim-driven, hubless axial-flow pump and the wireless transmission of energy. We describe a low-cost, fully implantable, low-invasive, wireless power transmission left ventricular assist device that has the potential to address patients with advanced HF with higher impact, especially in developing countries. In vitro testing will provide input for further optimization of the device before proceeding to a completely functional prototype that can be implanted in animals.
We present a low-cost, accessible, and rapid fabrication process for electrochemical microfluidic sensors. This work leverages the accessibility of consumer-grade electronic craft cutters as the primary tool for patterning of sensor electrodes and microfluidic circuits, while commodity materials such as gold leaf, silver ink pen, double-sided tape, plastic transparency films, and fabric adhesives are used as its base structural materials. The device consists of three layers, the silver reference electrode layer at the top, the PET fluidic circuits in the middle and the gold sensing electrodes at the bottom. Separation of the silver reference electrode from the gold sensing electrodes reduces the possibility of cross-contamination during surface modification. A novel approach in mesoscale patterning of gold leaf electrodes can produce generic designs with dimensions as small as 250 μm. Silver electrodes with dimensions as small as 385 μm were drawn using a plotter and a silver ink pen, and fluid microchannels as small as 300 μm were fabricated using a sandwich of iron-on adhesives and PET. Device layers are then fused together using an office laminator. The integrated microfluidic electrochemical platform has electrode kinetics/performance of Δ Ep = 91.3 mV, Ipa / Ipc = 0.905, characterized by cyclic voltammetry using a standard ferrocyanide redox probe, and this was compared against a commercial screen-printed gold electrode (Δ Ep = 68.9 mV, Ipa / Ipc = 0.984). To validate the performance of the integrated microfluidic electrochemical platform, a catalytic hydrogen peroxide sensor and enzyme-coupled glucose biosensors were developed as demonstrators. Hydrogen peroxide quantitation achieves a limit of detection of 0.713 mM and sensitivity of 78.37 μA mM -1 cm -2 , while glucose has a limit of detection of 0.111 mM and sensitivity of 12.68 μA mM -1 cm -2 . This rapid process allows an iterative design-build-test cycle in under 2 hours. The upfront cost to set up the system is less than USD 520, with each device costing less than USD 0.12, making this manufacturing process suitable for low-resource laboratories or classroom settings.
Human gait is a unique behavioral characteristic that can be used to recognize individuals. Collecting gait information widely by the means of wearable devices and recognizing people by the data has become a topic of research. While most prior studies collected gait information using inertial measurement units, we gather the data from 40 people using insoles, including pressure sensors, and precisely identify the gait phases from the long time series using the pressure data. In terms of recognizing people, there have been a few recent studies on neural network-based approaches for solving the open set gait recognition problem using wearable devices. Typically, these approaches determine decision boundaries in the latent space with a limited number of samples. Motivated by the fact that such methods are sensitive to the values of hyper-parameters, as our first contribution, we propose a new network model that is less sensitive to changes in the values using a new prototyping encoder-decoder network architecture. As our second contribution, to overcome the inherent limitations due to the lack of transparency and interpretability of neural networks, we propose a new module that enables us to analyze which part of the input is relevant to the overall recognition performance using explainable tools such as sensitivity analysis (SA) and layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP).
Journal of Information Systems Education. Summer, 2020, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p179, 8 p.
Teaching -- Usage, Teaching -- Methods, and Teaching -- Study and teaching
Given the ubiquity of interfaces on computing devices, it is essential for future Information Systems (IS) professionals to understand the ramifications of good user interface (UI) design. This article provides instructions on how to efficiently and effectively teach IS students about "fit," a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) concept, through a paper prototyping activity. Although easy to explain, the concept of "fit" can be difficult to understand without repeated practice. Practically, designing "fit" into UIs can be cost-prohibitive because working prototypes are often beyond students' technical skillset. Accordingly, based on principles of active learning, we show how to use paper prototyping to demonstrate "fit" in a hands-on class exercise. We provide detailed stepby-step instructions to plan, setup, and present the exercise to guide students through the process of "fit" in UI design. As a result of this activity, students are better able to employ both theoretical and practical applications of "fit" in UI design and implementation. This exercise is applicable in any course that includes UI design, such as principles of HCI, systems analysis and design, software engineering, and project management. Keywords: Human-computer interaction (HCI), Paper prototyping, Active learning, Constructionism, Teaching tip 1. INTRODUCTION With computing devices peppering nearly every aspect of our lives, how people interact with these technologies is critically important to all computing fields. In fact, failure to properly [...]
The Analyst [Analyst] 2022 Feb 14; Vol. 147 (4), pp. 587-596. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Feb 14.
Capillary Action, Polymers, Porosity, Lab-On-A-Chip Devices, and Microfluidics
Paper-based microfluidics was initially developed for use in ultra-low-cost diagnostics powered passively by liquid wicking. However, there is significant untapped potential in using paper to internally guide porous microfluidic flows using externally applied pressure gradients. Here, we present a new technique for fabricating and utilizing low-cost polymer-laminated paper-based microfluidic devices using external pressure. Known as microfluidic pressure in paper (μPiP), devices fabricated by this technique are capable of sustaining a pressure gradient for use in precise liquid handling and manipulation applications similar to conventional microfluidic open-channel designs, but instead where fluid is driven directly through the porous paper structure. μPiP devices can be both rapidly prototyped or scalably manufactured and deployed at commercial scale with minimal time, equipment, and training requirements. We present an analysis of continuous pressure-driven flow in porous paper-based microfluidic channels and demonstrate broad applicability of this method in performing a variety of different liquid handling applications, including measuring red blood cell deformability and performing continuous free-flow DNA electrophoresis. This new platform offers a budget-friendly method for performing microfluidic operations for both academic prototyping and large-scale commercial device production.
Soft robotics [Soft Robot] 2022 Jan 07. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Jan 07.
Designs of soft actuators are mostly guided and limited to certain target functionalities. This article presents a novel programmable design for soft pneumatic bellows-shaped actuators with distinct motions, thus a wide range of functionalities can be engendered through tuning channel parameters. According to the design principle, a kinematic model is established for motion prediction, and a sampling-based optimal parameter search is executed for automatic design. The proposed design method and kinematic models provide a tool for the generation of an optimal channel curve, with respect to target functions and required motion trajectories. Quantitative characterizations on the analytical model are conducted. To validate the functionalities, we generate three types of actuators to cover a wide range of motions in manipulation and locomotion tasks. Comparisons of model prediction on motion trajectory and prototype performance indicate the efficacy of the forward kinematics, and two task-based optimal designs for manipulation scenarios validate the effectiveness of the design parameter search. Prototyped by additive manufacturing technique with soft matter, multifunctional robots in case studies have been demonstrated, suggesting adaptability of the structure and convenience of the soft actuator's automatic design in both manipulation and locomotion. Results show that the novel design method together with the kinematic model paves a way for designing function-oriented actuators in an automatic flow.
To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rcs.1895/abstract Byline: Mohamed Farid Shehab, Nabila Mohammed Abdel Hamid, Nevien Abdullatif Askar, Ahmed Mokhtar Elmardenly Keywords: CAD-CAM, electron beam melting; immediate mandibular reconstruction; patient-specific titanium mesh; rapid prototyping Abstract Background Immediate mandibular reconstruction was performed using a patient-specific titanium mesh tray fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM) /rapid prototyping techniques. Methods Patient-specific titanium trays were virtually designed and fabricated using EBM technology/rapid prototyping for patients requiring mandibular resection and immediate reconstruction using an iliac crest bone graft. Dental implants were placed in the grafted sites and the patients received prosthetic rehabilitation with a follow-up of one year. Clinical data, postoperative bone formation and complications were evaluated. Results A symmetric appearance of facial contours was achieved. The titanium tray incorporated the particulate iliac crest bone graft that provided significant bone formation (mean 18.97 [+ or -] 1.45 mm) and predictable results. Stability of the dental implants was achieved. Conclusion The patient-specific titanium meshes and immediate particulate autogenous bone graft showed satisfactory clinical and surgical results in improving patients' quality of life and decreasing the overall treatment time with adequate functional rehabilitation.
García-Ávila J, Rodríguez CA, Vargas-Martínez A, Ramírez-Cedillo E, and Martínez-López JI
Materials (Basel, Switzerland) [Materials (Basel)] 2021 Dec 30; Vol. 15 (1). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Dec 30.
The strategy of embedding conductive materials on polymeric matrices has produced functional and wearable artificial electronic skin prototypes capable of transduction signals, such as pressure, force, humidity, or temperature. However, these prototypes are expensive and cover small areas. This study proposes a more affordable manufacturing strategy for manufacturing conductive layers with 6 × 6 matrix micropatterns of RTV-2 silicone rubber and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT). A novel mold with two cavities and two different micropatterns was designed and tested as a proof-of-concept using Low-Force Stereolithography-based additive manufacturing (AM). The effect SWCNT concentrations (3 wt.%, 4 wt.%, and 5 wt.%) on the mechanical properties were characterized by quasi-static axial deformation tests, which allowed them to stretch up to ~160%. The elastomeric soft material's hysteresis energy (Mullin's effect) was fitted using the Ogden-Roxburgh model and the Nelder-Mead algorithm. The assessment showed that the resulting multilayer material exhibits high flexibility and high conductivity (surface resistivity ~7.97 × 10 4 Ω/sq) and that robust soft tooling can be used for other devices.
Barasti D, Troscia M, Lattuca D, Tardo A, Barsanti I, and Pagano P
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) [Sensors (Basel)] 2021 Dec 30; Vol. 22 (1). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Dec 30.
Industry, Lakes, and Software
Seaports are genuine, intermodal hubs connecting seaways to inland transport links, such as roads and railways. Seaports are located at the focal point of institutional, industrial, and control activities in a jungle of interconnected information systems. System integration is setting considerable challenges when a group of independent providers are asked to implement complementary software functionalities. For this reason, seaports are the ideal playground where software is highly composite and tailored to a large variety of final users (from the so-called port communities). Although the target would be that of shaping the Port Authorities to be providers of (digital) innovation services, the state-of-the-art is still that of considering them as final users, or proxies of them. For this reason, we show how a canonical cloud, virtualizing a distributed architecture, can be structured to host different, possibly overlapped, tenants, slicing the information system at the infrastructure, platform, and software layers. Resources at the infrastructure and platform layers are shared so that a variety of independent applications can make use of the local calculus and access the data stored in a Data Lake. Such a cloud is adopted by the Port of Livorno as a rapid prototyping framework for the development and deployment of ICT innovation services. In order to demonstrate the versatility of this framework, three case studies relating to as many prototype ICT services (Navigation Safety, e-Freight, and Logistics) released within three industrial tenants are here presented and discussed.
Kasi DG, de Graaf MNS, Motreuil-Ragot PA, Frimat JMS, Ferrari MD, Sarro PM, Mastrangeli M, van den Maagdenberg AMJM, Mummery CL, and Orlova VV
Micromachines [Micromachines (Basel)] 2021 Dec 29; Vol. 13 (1). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Dec 29.
Organ-on-a-chip (OoC) and microfluidic devices are conventionally produced using microfabrication procedures that require cleanrooms, silicon wafers, and photomasks. The prototyping stage often requires multiple iterations of design steps. A simplified prototyping process could therefore offer major advantages. Here, we describe a rapid and cleanroom-free microfabrication method using maskless photolithography. The approach utilizes a commercial digital micromirror device (DMD)-based setup using 375 nm UV light for backside exposure of an epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU-8) on glass coverslips. We show that microstructures of various geometries and dimensions, microgrooves, and microchannels of different heights can be fabricated. New SU-8 molds and soft lithography-based polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chips can thus be produced within hours. We further show that backside UV exposure and grayscale photolithography allow structures of different heights or structures with height gradients to be developed using a single-step fabrication process. Using this approach: (1) digital photomasks can be designed, projected, and quickly adjusted if needed; and (2) SU-8 molds can be fabricated without cleanroom availability, which in turn (3) reduces microfabrication time and costs and (4) expedites prototyping of new OoC devices.
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) [Sensors (Basel)] 2021 Dec 21; Vol. 22 (1). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Dec 21.
Aged, Communication, Humans, Motivation, Quality of Life, Aphasia, and Mobile Applications
Aphasia is a partial or total loss of the ability to articulate ideas or comprehend spoken language, resulting from brain damage, in a person whose language skills were previously normal. Our goal was to find out how a storytelling app can help people with aphasia to communicate and share daily experiences. For this purpose, the Aphasia Create app was created for tablets, along with Aphastory for the Google Glass device. These applications facilitate social participation and enhance quality of life by using visual storytelling forms composed of photos, drawings, icons, etc., that can be saved and shared. We performed usability tests (supervised by a neuropsychologist) on six participants with aphasia who were able to communicate. Our work contributes (1) evidence that the functions implemented in the Aphasia Create tablet app suit the needs of target users, but older people are often not familiar with tactile devices, (2) reports that the Google Glass device may be problematic for persons with right-hand paresis, and (3) a characterization of the design guidelines for apps for aphasics. Both applications can be used to work with people with aphasia, and can be further developed. Aphasic centers, in which the apps were presented, expressed interest in using them to work with patients. The Aphasia Create app won the Enactus Poland National Competition in 2015.
O'Grady BJ, Geuy MD, Kim H, Balotin KM, Allchin ER, Florian DC, Bute NN, Scott TE, Lowen GB, Fricker CM, Fitzgerald ML, Guelcher SA, Wikswo JP, Bellan LM, and Lippmann ES
Lab on a chip [Lab Chip] 2021 Dec 07; Vol. 21 (24), pp. 4814-4822. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Dec 07.
Cell Culture Techniques, Humans, Reproducibility of Results, Xylenes, Lab-On-A-Chip Devices, and Polymers
Fabrication of microfluidic devices by photolithography generally requires specialized training and access to a cleanroom. As an alternative, 3D printing enables cost-effective fabrication of microdevices with complex features that would be suitable for many biomedical applications. However, commonly used resins are cytotoxic and unsuitable for devices involving cells. Furthermore, 3D prints are generally refractory to elastomer polymerization such that they cannot be used as master molds for fabricating devices from polymers ( e.g. polydimethylsiloxane, or PDMS). Different post-print treatment strategies, such as heat curing, ultraviolet light exposure, and coating with silanes, have been explored to overcome these obstacles, but none have proven universally effective. Here, we show that deposition of a thin layer of parylene, a polymer commonly used for medical device applications, renders 3D prints biocompatible and allows them to be used as master molds for elastomeric device fabrication. When placed in culture dishes containing human neurons, regardless of resin type, uncoated 3D prints leached toxic material to yield complete cell death within 48 hours, whereas cells exhibited uniform viability and healthy morphology out to 21 days if the prints were coated with parylene. Diverse PDMS devices of different shapes and sizes were easily cast from parylene-coated 3D printed molds without any visible defects. As a proof-of-concept, we rapid prototyped and tested different types of PDMS devices, including triple chamber perfusion chips, droplet generators, and microwells. Overall, we suggest that the simplicity and reproducibility of this technique will make it attractive for fabricating traditional microdevices and rapid prototyping new designs. In particular, by minimizing user intervention on the fabrication and post-print treatment steps, our strategy could help make microfluidics more accessible to the biomedical research community.
Purpose: Due to the high perforation rate of cervical pedicle screw placement, we have designed four different types of rapid prototyping navigation templates to enhance the accuracy of cervical pedicle screw placement. Methods: Fifteen human cadaveric cervical spines from C2 to C7 were randomly divided into five groups, with three specimens in each group. The diameter of pedicle screw used in this study was 3.5 mm. Groups 1-4 were assisted by the two-level template, one-level bilateral template, one-level unilateral template and one-level point-contact template, respectively. Group 5 was without any navigation template. After the surgery, the accuracy of screw placement in the five groups was evaluated using postoperative computed tomographic scans to observe whether the screw breached the pedicle cortex. Results: A total of 180 pedicle screws were inserted without any accidents. The accuracy rate was 75%, 100%, 100%, 91.7%, and 63.9%, respectively, from Groups 1 to 5. All the template groups were significantly higher than Group 5, though the two-level navigation template group was significantly lower than the other three template groups. The operation time was 4.72 ± 0.28, 4.81 ± 0.29, 5.03 ± 0.35, 8.42 ± 0.36, and 10.05 ± 0.52 min, respectively, from Groups 1 to 5. The no template and point-contact procedures were significantly more time-consuming than the template procedures. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that four different design types of navigation templates achieved a higher accuracy in assisting cervical pedicle screw placement than no template insertion. However, the two-level template's accuracy was the lowest compared to the other three templates. Meanwhile, these templates avoided fluoroscopy during the surgery and decreased the operation time. It is always very challenging to translate cadaveric studies to clinical practice. Hence, the one-level bilateral, unilateral, and point-contact navigation templates designed by us need to be meticulously tested to verify their accuracy and safety.
Kaliński KJ, Galewski MA, Mazur MR, and Stawicka-Morawska N
Materials (Basel, Switzerland) [Materials (Basel)] 2021 Nov 01; Vol. 14 (21). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Nov 01.
The paper presents an original method concerning the problem of vibration reduction in the general case while milling large-size and geometrically complex details with the use of an innovative approach to the selection of spindle speed. A computational model is obtained by applying the so-called operational approach to identify the parameters of the workpiece modal model. Thanks to the experimental modal analysis results, modal subsystem identification was performed and reliable process data for simulation studies were obtained. Next, simulations of the milling process, for successive values of the spindle speed, are repeated until the best vibration state of the workpiece is obtained. For this purpose, the root mean square values of the time plots of vibration displacements are examined. The effectiveness of the approach proposed for reducing vibrations in the process of face milling is verified on the basis of the results of appropriate experimental investigations. The economic profitability of the implementation of the operational technique in the production practice of enterprises dealing with mechanical processing is demonstrated as well.
DNA -- Technology application, Rapid prototyping -- Technology application, Technology application, Computers, News, opinion and commentary, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology -- Technology application
2021 DEC 15 (VerticalNews) -- By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Computer Weekly News -- New research on Life Science Research - Nucleic Acids Research is the subject of [...]
Metals -- Research, Education grants -- Research, Degassing of metals -- Research, Shape-memory alloys -- Research, Skin -- Research, Specialty metals industry -- International economic relations, Computers, News, opinion and commentary, and University of Auckland
2022 JUN 8 (VerticalNews) -- By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Computer Weekly News -- Investigators publish new report on Computers. According to news reporting originating from Auckland, New [...]
Kondaveeti, Hari Kishan, Kumaravelu, Nandeesh Kumar, Vanambathina, Sunny Dayal, Mathe, Sudha Ellison, and Vappangi, Suseela
Computer Science Review. May, 2021, Vol. 40
Keywords Raspberry Pi; BeagleBone; Sharks Cove; Waspmote Abstract Arduino, an open-source electronics platform, has become the go-to option for anyone working on interactive hardware and software projects. An Arduino board (such as the Uno) connected to a breadboard with plugins such as inputs, sensors, lights, and displays can be controlled by a code written in the Arduino development environment. How to achieve this is by prototyping with Arduino. Prototyping with Arduino has grown in popularity with the increased use of the Arduino platform. Prototyping with Arduino, however, is not an easy task for nonprogrammers with interest in the field. With increased public interest in the field will come a need for accessible information. This paper presents a methodical literature review intended to intensively analyze and compare existing primary studies on prototyping with Arduino. We found about 130 of such studies, all peer-reviewed and published within the last 15 years, including these years (2015--2020). These studies were tediously and carefully chosen through a three-step process. In this paper, a cautious analysis of selected studies was followed by a clear description of the methods applied. The methods were categorized according to the success rate of the studied prototypes. Results obtained can be used in researches on the best technique to adopt while prototyping with Arduino. They can also be used in electronics researches and by individuals who wish to obtain a guide on prototyping with Arduino despite lacking grounded knowledge of the subject matter. Author Affiliation: (a) School of Computer Science & Engineering, VIT-AP University, Beside AP Secretariat, Near Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India (b) School of Electronics Engineering, VIT-AP University, Beside AP Secretariat, Near Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India * Corresponding author. Article History: Received 22 September 2020; Accepted 13 January 2021 Byline: Hari Kishan Kondaveeti [email@example.com] (a,*), Nandeesh Kumar Kumaravelu (b), Sunny Dayal Vanambathina (b), Sudha Ellison Mathe (b), Suseela Vappangi (b)
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) [Sensors (Basel)] 2021 Nov 30; Vol. 21 (23). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Nov 30.
LoRaWAN has gained significant attention for Internet-of-Things (IOT) applications due to its low power consumption and long range potential for data transmission. While there is a significant body of work assessing LoRA coverage and data transmission characteristics, there is a lack of data available about commercially available LoRa prototyping boards and their power consumption, in relation to their features. It is currently difficult to estimate the power consumption of a LoRa module operating under different transmission profiles, due to a lack of manufacturer data available. In this study, power testing has been carried out on physical hardware and significant variation was found in the power consumption of competing boards, all marketed as "extremely low power". In this paper, testing results are presented alongside an experimentally-derived power model for the lowest power LoRa module, and power requirements are compared to firmware settings. The power analysis adds to existing work showing trends in data-rate and transmission power settings effects on electrical power consumption. The model's accuracy is experimentally verified and shows acceptable agreement to estimated values. Finally, applications for the model are presented by way of a hypothetical scenario and calculations performed in order to estimate battery life and energy consumption for varying data transmission intervals.
Samotaev N, Oblov K, Dzhumaev P, Fritsch M, Mosch S, Vinnichenko M, Trofimenko N, Baumgärtner C, Fuchs FM, and Wissmeier L
Micromachines [Micromachines (Basel)] 2021 Nov 25; Vol. 12 (12). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Nov 25.
The work describes a fast and flexible micro/nano fabrication and manufacturing method for ceramic Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)sensors. Rapid prototyping techniques are demonstrated for metal oxide sensor fabrication in the form of a complete MEMS device, which could be used as a compact miniaturized surface mount devices package. Ceramic MEMS were fabricated by the laser micromilling of already pre-sintered monolithic materials. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to deposit metallization and sensor films by thick-film and thin-film methods on the manufactured ceramic product. The results of functional tests of such manufactured sensors are presented, demonstrating their full suitability for gas sensing application and indicating that the obtained parameters are at a level comparable to those of industrial produced sensors. Results of design and optimization principles of applied methods for micro- and nanosystems are discussed with regard to future, wider application in semiconductor gas sensors prototyping.
Kleinerman A, Rosenfeld A, Benrimoh D, Fratila R, Armstrong C, Mehltretter J, Shneider E, Yaniv-Rosenfeld A, Karp J, Reynolds CF, Turecki G, and Kapelner A
PloS one [PLoS One] 2021 Nov 12; Vol. 16 (11), pp. e0258400. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Nov 12 (Print Publication: 2021).
Area Under Curve, Clinical Trials as Topic, Drug Therapy, Combination methods, Humans, Precision Medicine methods, Remission Induction, Treatment Outcome, Antidepressive Agents therapeutic use, Clinical Decision-Making methods, Deep Learning, Depression drug therapy, and Depressive Disorder, Major drug therapy
Machine-assisted treatment selection commonly follows one of two paradigms: a fully personalized paradigm which ignores any possible clustering of patients; or a sub-grouping paradigm which ignores personal differences within the identified groups. While both paradigms have shown promising results, each of them suffers from important limitations. In this article, we propose a novel deep learning-based treatment selection approach that is shown to strike a balance between the two paradigms using latent-space prototyping. Our approach is specifically tailored for domains in which effective prototypes and sub-groups of patients are assumed to exist, but groupings relevant to the training objective are not observable in the non-latent space. In an extensive evaluation, using both synthetic and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) real-world clinical data describing 4754 MDD patients from clinical trials for depression treatment, we show that our approach favorably compares with state-of-the-art approaches. Specifically, the model produced an 8% absolute and 23% relative improvement over random treatment allocation. This is potentially clinically significant, given the large number of patients with MDD. Therefore, the model can bring about a much desired leap forward in the way depression is treated today.
Sun X, Rickard WDA, Sparkes BM, White BR, Offer RF, Luiten AN, and Ironside CN
Optics express [Opt Express] 2021 Nov 08; Vol. 29 (23), pp. 37733-37746.
We have developed a rapid prototyping approach for creating custom grating magneto-optical traps using a dual-beam system combining a focused ion beam and a scanning electron microscope. With this approach we have created both one- and two-dimensional gratings of up to 400 µm × 400 µm in size with structure features down to 100 nm, periods of 620 nm, adjustable aspect ratios (ridge width : depth ∼ 1 : 0.3 to 1 : 1.4) and sidewall angles up to 71°. The depth and period of these gratings make them suitable for holographic trapping and cooling of neutral ytterbium on the 1 S 0 → 1 P 1 399 nm transition. Optical testing of the gratings at this wavelength has demonstrated a total first order diffraction of 90% of the reflected light. This work therefore represents a fast, high resolution, programmable and maskless alternative to current photo and electron beam lithography-based procedures and provides a time efficient process for prototyping of small period, high aspect ratio grating magneto-optical traps and other high resolution structures.
Smith PJ, Joseph Davey DL, Schmucker L, Bruns C, Bekker LG, Medina-Marino A, Thirumurthy H, and Buttenheim AM
AIDS patient care and STDs [AIDS Patient Care STDS] 2021 Nov; Vol. 35 (11), pp. 428-434.
Adult, Female, Humans, Male, Pregnancy, Sexual Partners, South Africa, Viral Load, HIV Infections diagnosis, HIV Infections drug therapy, and HIV Testing
Daily antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication, rendering HIV undetectable through viral load (VL) testing. People living with HIV (PLWH) who have an undetectable VL cannot transmit HIV to sexual partners or through giving birth, a message commonly referred to as U = U (undetectable equals untransmittable). To increase knowledge and understanding of U = U among men, who have poorer HIV testing and treatment outcomes than women, we engaged men from high HIV burden communities in Cape Town in two interactive human-centered design cocreation workshops to develop local U = U messaging for men. Two trained workshop facilitators, explained the U = U message to 39 adult men (in two separate workshops), and asked them how to effectively communicate U = U to other men in the local language (isiXhosa). Participant-designed messages sought to inform men about U = U to help assuage fears of testing HIV positive (by removing the stigma of living with HIV and being a vector of disease), and to explain that ART enables PLWH to live normal healthy lives, making HIV "untransmittable" to sex partners. Participants' messages emphasized that when virally suppressed, " I cannot spread HIV to the other person " and " (the pill) keeps on killing the virus so I can live a normal life for the rest of my life. " Men cocreated simple local U = U messages to address fears of testing HIV positive and emphasizing ART's positive effects. Cocreated tailored messaging may reduce stigma associated with living with HIV and improve the uptake of HIV testing and treatment among South African men. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT04364165.
Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference [Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc] 2021 Nov; Vol. 2021, pp. 7422-7425.
Humans, Artificial Limbs, and Laboratories
We present a network-enabled myoelectric platform for performing research outside of the laboratory environment. A low-cost, flexible, modular design based on common Internet of Things connectivity technology allows home-based research to be piloted. An outline of the platform is presented followed by technical results obtained from ten days of home-based tests with three participants. Results show the system enabled collection of close to 12,000 trials during around 28 cumulative hours of use. Home-based testing of multiple participants in parallel offers efficiency gains and provides a intuitive route toward long-term testing of upper-limb prosthetic devices in more naturalistic settings.Clinical relevance- In-home myoelectric training reduces clinician time. Network-enabled systems with back-end dashboards allow clinicians to monitor patients myoelectric ability over time and will provide a new way of accessing information about how upper-limb prosthetics are commonly used.
Krishnasamy S, Mokhtar RAR, Singh R, Sivallingam S, Aziz YFA, and Mathaneswaran V
Brazilian journal of cardiovascular surgery [Braz J Cardiovasc Surg] 2021 Oct 17; Vol. 36 (5), pp. 707-716. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Oct 17.
Heart, Humans, Pilot Projects, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Models, Anatomic, and Printing, Three-Dimensional
Introduction: Rapid prototyping is a process by which three-dimensional (3D) computerized surface models are converted into physical models. In this study, a 3D heart bio model was created using the rapid prototyping method and the accuracy of this heart model was assessed by clinicians. Methods: The two-dimensional images of normal heart from gated computed tomography scan datasets were used to create a 3D model of the heart. The slices were then processed using the software BioModroid and printed with the 3D printer. The evaluation of the model was performed by a questionnaire answered by four cardiothoracic surgeons, 12 cardiologists, five radiologists, and nine surgical registrars. Results: Eighty-six percent of the anatomy structures showed in this model scored 100% accuracy. Structures such as circumflex branch of left coronary artery, great cardiac vein, papillary muscle, and coronary sinus were each rated 77%, 70%, 70%, and 57% accurate. Among 30 clinicians, a total of 93% rated the model accuracy as good and above; 64% of the clinicians evaluated this model as an excellent teaching tool for anatomy class. As a visual aid for surgery or interventional procedures, the model was rated excellent (40%), good (50%), average (23%), and poor (3%); 70% of the clinicians scored the model as above average for training purpose. Overall, this 3D rapid prototyping cardiac model was rated as excellent (33%), good (50%), and average (17%). Conclusion: This 3D rapid prototyping heart model will be a valuable source of anatomical education and cardiac interventional management.