Blum, David, Jorissen, Filip, Huang, Sen, Arroyo, Javier, Benne, Kyle, Li, Yanfei, Gavan, Valentin, Rivalin, Lisa, Helsen, Lieve, Vrabie, Draguna, Wetter, Michael, and Sofos, Marina
Advanced control strategies are becoming increasinglynecessary in buildings in order to meet and balancerequirements for energy efficiency, demand flexibility,and occupant comfort. Additional development andwidespread adoption of emerging control strategies,however, ultimately require low implementation costs toreduce payback period and verified performance to gaincontrol vendor, building owner, and operator trust. Thisis difficult in an already first-cost driven and risk-averseindustry. Recent innovations in building simulation cansignificantly aid in meeting these requirements andspurring innovation at early stages of development byevaluating performance, comparing state-of-the-art tonew strategies, providing installation experience, andtesting controller implementations. This paper presentsthe development of a simulation framework consisting oftest cases and software platform for the testing ofadvanced control strategies (BOPTEST - BuildingOptimization Performance Test). The objectives andrequirements of the framework, components of a test case,and proposed software platform architecture aredescribed, and the framework is demonstrated with aprototype implementation and example test case.
RAPID prototyping, SELECTIVE laser sintering, DENTISTRY, and STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
The advent of Rapid prototyping has opened new prospects in medical field, especially dentistry with its accuracy and speed. Rapid prototyping is an additive manufacturing technology that produces prototype models by adding materials, layer by layer. The earlier subtractive technologies manufactured objects via milling or grinding of a material resulting in replication of only external surface details. On the contrary, rapid prototyping provides a replica with internal complex shapes. This article discusses the various Rapid prototyping technologies commonly employed in dentistry such as selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modelling. inkjet printing and solid ground curing. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
TRASTUZUMAB, DOCETAXEL, RAPID prototyping, IMMUNOGLOBULINS, NANOPARTICLES, and FLOW cytometry
Developing targeted nanoparticles is a rising strategy to improve drug delivery in oncology. Antibodies are the most commonly used targeting agents. However, determination of their optimal number at the surface remains a challenging issue, mainly due to the difficulties in measuring precisely surface coating levels when prototyping nanoparticles. We developed an original quantitative assay to measure the exact number of coated antibodies per nanoparticle. Using flow cytometry optimized for submicron particle analysis and beads covered with known amounts of human IgG-kappa mimicking various amounts of antibodies, this new method was tested as part of the prototyping of docetaxel liposomes coated with trastuzumab against Her2+ breast cancer. This quantification method allowed to discriminate various batches of immunoliposomes depending on their trastuzumab density on nanoparticle surface (i.e., 330 (Immunoliposome-1), 480 (Immunoliposome-2) and 690 (Immunoliposome-3), p = 0.004, One-way ANOVA). Here we showed that optimal number of grafted antibodies on nanoparticles should be finely tuned and highest density of targeting agent is not necessarily associated with highest efficacy. Overall, this new method should help to better prototype third generation nanoparticles. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
VIRTUAL prototypes, VIRTUAL design, HUMAN-machine systems, MACHINERY, TASK performance, RAPID prototyping, and MOBILE robots
Limited visibility from a mobile machine cab can decrease task performance and lead to accidents. Therefore, it is important to consider visibility issues already in the design phase. This paper describes the use of virtual prototyping in the evaluation of see-through features of mobile work machines. The goal is to evaluate whether two different machine boom transparency levels have an effect on task performance. In addition, two alternative placements of overlaid information in the operators' field of view are assessed. A within-subject design was used in this study. Based on the results, there was no significant difference in performance between the transparency levels. However, the test participants preferred a transparency level of 70–80% (where 0% is completely opaque). Similar results were found with the placement of the overlaid information, which had no significant effect on task performance. Both placements, on the windscreen and on the tunnel wall, were equally favoured by the participants. The findings of this study contribute to the design of see-through features for mobile work machines. In addition, the study demonstrates the use of virtual prototyping in the design of novel features in human–machine systems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Chung, Philip, Heller, J Alex, Etemadi, Mozziyar, Ottoson, Paige E, Liu, Jonathan A, Rand, Larry, and Roy, Shuvo
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, iss 88
Vagina, Humans, Silicone Elastomers, Equipment and Supplies, Computer-Aided Design, Female, Printing, Three-Dimensional, Bioengineering, Issue 88, liquid injection molding, reaction injection molding, molds, 3D printing, fused deposition modeling, rapid prototyping, medical devices, low cost, low volume, rapid turnaround time, Cognitive Sciences, Biochemistry and Cell Biology, and Psychology
Biologically inert elastomers such as silicone are favorable materials for medical device fabrication, but forming and curing these elastomers using traditional liquid injection molding processes can be an expensive process due to tooling and equipment costs. As a result, it has traditionally been impractical to use liquid injection molding for low-cost, rapid prototyping applications. We have devised a method for rapid and low-cost production of liquid elastomer injection molded devices that utilizes fused deposition modeling 3D printers for mold design and a modified desiccator as an injection system. Low costs and rapid turnaround time in this technique lower the barrier to iteratively designing and prototyping complex elastomer devices. Furthermore, CAD models developed in this process can be later adapted for metal mold tooling design, enabling an easy transition to a traditional injection molding process. We have used this technique to manufacture intravaginal probes involving complex geometries, as well as overmolding over metal parts, using tools commonly available within an academic research laboratory. However, this technique can be easily adapted to create liquid injection molded devices for many other applications.
Sloyan, Karen, Melkonyan, Henrik, and Dahlem, Marcus S.
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology; Apr2020, Vol. 107 Issue 11/12, p4469-4480, 12p, 2 Black and White Photographs, 15 Diagrams, 2 Charts
FOCUSED ion beams, OPTICAL glass, MATERIALS science, RAPID prototyping, SEMICONDUCTOR materials, and OPTICAL fibers
Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is widely used in fields such as the semiconductor industry and materials science research. The direct writing and small feature size also make FIB milling attractive for rapid prototyping of novel photonic structures. In this manuscript, we describe in detail a FIB milling procedure which enables high-resolution fabrication of complex micro- and nanostructures with precise geometry control. Two different procedures (for 2D and 3D structures) are described and implemented on the tip of a glass optical fiber for fabricating diverse structures embedded on or below the tip surface. The procedures described here can be easily adjusted and implemented on any conductive or non-conductive substrate. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This research work has been completed by concentrating on the structure of inserts for foot orthosis fabricated by utilizing rapid prototyping technology. Thermoplastic elastomer and thermoplastic polyurethane are the most commonly used materials that are being used in customized three-dimensional printed orthotic insoles, which are comfortable and prevent the user in many foot disorders. Thermo-softening viscoelastic polymers, explicitly Filaflex and Ninjaflex, have been printed by utilizing Flash Forge three-dimensional printers to evaluate the mechanical properties of specimens with alterations of the percentage rate fill-up design replicas. The results are compared on the basis of hardness test, flexural/bending test, and tensile test using Durometer and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). It has also been observed that the most significant effecting factor is infill density. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
ACADEMIC libraries, MANUFACTURING processes, LIBRARIANS, and LIBRARIES
Prototyping is an incremental process that facilitates those looking to make changes in products, services, or resources. Originating in industrial fabrication process, prototyping can be adapted by librarians to examine changes made to library services, amenities, and resources. They offer a cost-effective way of trying something new and needed, to ensure that patron needs are met. This article modifies prototyping into a five-step process and reviews five examples where the Lee Library used prototyping to inform library decisions to inform the development of library services, amenities, processes, and resources to better serve its patrons. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, MOLDING materials, TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, TECHNOLOGY, and THREE-dimensional printing
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Purpose: To explore 3D printing for rapid development of prototype thin slab low‐Z/density ionization chamber arrays viable for custom needs in radiotherapy dosimetry and quality assurance (QA). Materials and methods: We designed and fabricated parallel plate ionization chambers and ionization chamber arrays using an off‐the‐shelf 3D printing equipment. Conductive components of the detectors were made of conductive polylactic acid (cPLA) and insulating components were made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). We characterized the detector responses using a Varian TrueBeam linac at 95 cm SSD in slab solid water phantom at 5 cm depth. We measured the current‐voltage (IV) curves, the response to different energy beam lines (2.5 MV, 6 MV, 6 MV FFF) for various dose rates and compared them to responses of a commercial Exradin A12 ionization chamber. We measured off‐axis ratio (OAR) for several small field static multi‐leaf collimators field sizes (0.5–3 cm) and compared them to OAR data obtained for commissioning of stereotactic radiotherapy. Results: We identified the printing capability and the limitations of a low‐cost off‐the‐shelf 3D printer for rapid prototyping of detector arrays. The design of the array with sub‐millimeter size features conformed to the 3D printing capabilities. IV‐curve for the array showed a strong polarity effect (8%) due to the design. Results for the parallel plate and the array compared well with A12 chamber: monitor unit (MU) dependence for the array was within a few % and the response to different energy beam lines was within 1%. Off‐axis dose profiles measured with the array were comparable to dose profiles obtained in water tank and stereotactic diode after accounting for the size of the chambers. Dose error was within 2% at the center of the profile and slightly larger at the penumbra. Conclusions: Rapid prototyping of ion chambers by means of low‐cost 3D printing is feasible with certain limitations in the design and spatial accuracy of the printed details. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, MANUFACTURING processes, HOLDER spaces, IMAGE analysis, WEIGHT measurement, PRINT materials, and METAL powders
Powder caking can dramatically affect powder handling and downstream production processes. Understanding the key factors that contribute to bulk powder caking is crucial. This article introduces the Hirschberg caking device (HCD), which is a 3D-printed device allowing for parallel testing of powder caking in a cylindrical geometry. In the HCD setup, the powder sample is stored in controlled conditions in the sample holder. On removal of the sample holder, the caked powder will remain in the shape determined by the sample geometry while the remaining powder will fall down. Caking indices can be calculated based on image analysis and weight measurement. The results obtained for the caking of lactose monohydrate with the HCD were in good agreement with the results obtained by a ring shear tester. In addition, a strain tester was used to measure the strength of the formed cakes. Using this approach, critical storage conditions and the required concentration of a given anticaking agent (talc) for lactose monohydrate could be identified. This work demonstrates the potential of rapid prototyping in powder characterization by introducing a fast and affordable approach for exploring and trouble-shooting powder caking. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]