Rabaey, J.M., Chu, C., Hoang, P., and Potkonjak, M.
IEEE Design & Test of Computers. June 1991, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p40, 12 p. chart Datapath section of the Viterbi processor.
Computer-Aided Design, Circuit Design, Prototype, New Technique, Technology, Integrated Systems, Real-Time System, California, University of (Berkeley), Research and Development, and University of California, Berkeley -- Research
The University of California, Berkeley, has developed the Hyper system that provides a completely integrated synthesis environment for real-time prototyping of datapath-intensive architectures, such as those used in high-performance, real-time systems in telecommunications, speech, video and image processing. Synthesis for real-time applications is defined as the hardware implementation with the least area, given an input computational graph, a number of real-time constraints and a hardware cell library. Hyper can generate a simulation model of the flow graph at any point, allowing the correctness of the executed operations to be verified and their effects on such performance parameters as the signal-to-noise ratio to be checked. The overall synthesis procedure in Hyper is implemented as a search process; new solutions are proposed by the system by executing such basic moves as adding or removing resources, changing the time allocation for different subgraphs in the algorithm, and applying an optimizing graph transformation.
Microprocessors and Microsystems. July-August, 1993, Vol. 17 Issue 6, p315, 10 p. chart
Requirements Analysis, Embedded Systems, Prototype, System Design, Real-Time System, Specifications, Scientific Research, Animation Software, and New Technique
Experience has shown that the most costly and time consuming problems found in computer-based systems are caused by specification errors. Many researchers consider that prototyping techniques can make significant inroads into these problems. This paper describes a methodology called animation prototyping for use during the generation and evaluation of the system requirements. Specifically it is intended for use with real-time embedded systems. The paper first sets out the background to defining and analysing the requirements of embedded systems. It then shows how prototyping in general fits in with such activities. After this the concept of animation prototyping is described. Finally, a detailed description is given of the application of the technique to a practical networking problem. (Reprinted by permission of the publisher.)
Present software development methods are not sufficient to handle the fast growing demand for larger systems and higher-quality software. Rapid prototyping may be the solution for improved programming productivity and software reliability. PSDL is a system description language for describing prototypes of real-time software systems. PSDL supports rapid prototyping based on abstractions and reusable software components. It is useful for very large real-time systems and for prototyping typical Ada applications. Information is provided on control constraints, computational models, timing constraints, hierarchical constraints, requirements for the hyperthermia system, prototyping methodology and the support environment.
IEEE Software. Sept, 1988, Vol. 5 Issue 5, p25, 12 p. chart (Prototyping life cycle -- updating system requirements).
Real-Time System, Prototype, Software Design, Models, Troubleshooting, Dataflow Architecture, Dataflow Languages, and Control Structures
Software technology must meet the increasing demand for high-quality systems. Rapid prototyping insures that software meets user needs, increases reliability and cuts down on costly changes in requirements. In constructing prototypes developers must satisfy and relate to its requirements. The prototype must be easy to modify and have easy-to-read code for documentation and support. A prototype can be spruced up later, programmer time should be used to maximize rapid feedback. Problem decomposition is central, as is an automated support environment. Software should be created in modules to speed later updates. Improved methods of module organization and retrieval should be established and computer-aided modification of the prototype would be more effective to execute user feedback.
Software, Process Control, Real-Time System, Software Engineering, Application Development Software, Programming, Prototype, Requirements Analysis, and System Development
Large-scale software requires effective management for production. Such large-scale software consists of application software, a utility subsystem, and an operating system. Individual software factories require levels of abstraction in a design process which uses prototyping, reusing, and program generating systems. The first level is the requirements level which defines the external devices with which the software communicates. A capsulated form of a requirements description is shown. The data-function or design level is the transition, the definition of a user's needs and the establishment of the model. Program models are defined and implemented in the program level. Prototyping is done throughout the entire process for the first operational versions of software interfaces. Productivity and reliability are the most crucial factors in management of a software factory. In addition to the encapsulated format examples, numerous block diagrams illustrate software production and the rolling mill software production example.
Lee, Insup, Bremond-Gregoire, Patrice, and Gerber, Richard
Proceedings of the IEEE. Jan 1994, Vol. 82 Issue 1, p158, 14 p. table
Real-Time System, System Design, Scientific Research, Algebraic Languages, Reliability, Process Control, Specifications, Models of Computation, Formal Languages, Concurrency Control, Resource Sharing, and Time-Driven Systems
Formal methods for the specification and analysis of real-time systems can improve their reliability by treating system components as mathematical objects and providing mathematical models to describe and predict the observable properties and behaviors of the objects. Formal methods allow the early discovery of ambiguities, inconsistencies, and incompleteness in informal requirements, and they support automatic or machine-assisted analysis of the correctness of specifications; they also make possible the evaluation of design alternatives without the expense of prototyping. The Algebra of Communicating Shared Resources (ACSR) real-time process algebra is described; its computation model is based on the notion that real-time systems are comprised of communicating processes that use shared resources for execution and synchronization with one another. ACSR supports synchronous timed actions and asynchronous instantaneous events.
ACM Transactions on Programming Languages & Systems. April 1988, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p215, 23 p. chart (match, fail)
Software Engineering, Modeling, Methods, Real-Time System, Process Control, and Programming Language
A language model, the Abstract Interaction Tool (AIT), is introduced for the specification of the User Interface Management Systems. It offers a tree-like hierarchy of interaction objects. Each object can be considered as an abstract input device containing a syntax-like specification of the required input pattern. The hierarchy of specifications makes up a system of syntactical productions with multiple control. The interface to the physical interaction devices is represented by the terminal nodes of the AIT. Hierarchical output resource management is featured, and at the higher, more abstract level, the input-output is loosely coupled. Coupling becomes increasingly tight at the lower levels. AITs model the functions (what) required by the user at the upper levels, but at the lower levels, the way to accomplish them (how) is emphasized. Facilities exist for context-dependent and expertise levels. Links to application modes are provided in a special section in the AIT. AITs can be applied to graphics, process control, dialogue, and real-time systems. They can also define controlled production rules in knowledge-based systems and provide tools for the software engineering phases specification and prototyping.