professional: MS/OR philosophy and programming: heuristic
Apparently MS/OR is being overtaken by newer decision aids such as decision support systems (DDS), and in addition, MS/OR has not received credit for its real contributions. This is a consequence of a narrow view of MS/OR emphasizing mathematics and neglecting such aspects as experimentation, heuristics, and modeling. A broad view of MS/OR consistent with its origins leads to a wider market of applications but risks psychological and political complications. We need to (1) take full advantage of computing hardware and software, (2) emphasize prototyping, heuristics, and modeling, as well as mathematics, and (3) promote our work not just in academic journals, but also in trade and management publications.
Peskin, Richard L., Walther, Sandra S., and Froncioni, Andy M.
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (MATCOM), 1989, 31, 4, 371.
The need for rapid prototyping of numerical simulations is considered, and an object-oriented, graphical based system (Smalltalk) is proposed as a basis for a new approach to user interfaces for scientific computing. The interface system requirements for problem expression, automatic programming, visualization, computational steering, and concurrent computing are discussed.
programming, integer algorithms: mixed-integer programming algorithms implementation, and linear large-scale systems: algorithmic implementation for large-scale systems
APROS represents an algorithmic development procedure for classes of mathematical programming problems that involve some form of decomposition technique and require extensive communication of data between a set of subproblems whose sizes and structures may vary during the solution procedure. Examples include most classes of mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems and large-scale mixed-integer linear programming problems as well as a wide variety of algorithms for large-scale nonlinear and linear programming problems exhibiting special structure. APROS works through the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) to provide exact syntactic statement of algorithmic solution procedures. APROS procedures are implemented through GAMS which is interfaced with nonlinear, linear and mixed-integer linear programming solvers to provide completely general automated implementations of many well known algorithms including the Generalized Benders Decomposition, the Outer Approximation/Equality Relaxation and Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition. The flexibility of APROS and the highly procedural modeling language GAMS provide a means of obtaining quick solutions to difficult classes of problems by implementing a selected algorithm, and also provide a unique tool for developing, prototyping and experimenting with new algorithms. A description of the procedural components, features and setups is presented with emphasis on the generality of the techniques.
Information Resources Management Journal (IRMJ), 1990, 3, 3, 23.
Many methodologies and techniques may be used in the development of information systems. Two widely used methodologies are: system development life cycle, and prototyping. In this article, we have extensively evaluated the two methodologies based on field data collected from information systems professionals in business and industry. Specifically, the two methodologies are evaluated for their applicability during various life cycle phases, by types of systems, and by the amount of problem structure. Various attributes associated with the methodologies have also been assessed. Our results support the use of a contingency approach for the selection of a proper methodology for systems development.
economics of information systems management, EDP auditing, information strategy and policy, organizational information processing, and system performance assessment
As corporate management attempts to extract more end user benefit from information systems department expenditures, interest has grown toward the use of information systems auditing to assure software quality. This research shows that information systems departments are motivated by end users to provide lower quality systems than they would if allowed to pursue their own objectives. The research continues by demonstrating that auditing cannot a priori be assumed to raise the quality of corporate information systems. In fact, auditing tends to establish objectives that lower software quality. It demonstrates that audits are most beneficial in managing unsophisticated information systems departments in which end users are currently dissatisfied with their level of support. Augmenting the systems development process via technologies such as computer aided software engineering and prototyping may more consistently and effectively improve quality than does auditing. Recent developments among the large audit firms indicate that they recognize the importance of new software development technology, and are restructuring their businesses accordingly.
Bolte, Christine, Kurbel, Karl, Moazzami, Mahmoud, and Pietsch, Wolfram
Arbeitsberichte des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik, 1991.
Anläßlich der Entwicklung eines großen Informationssystems wurde die Entscheidung getroffen, ein Werkzeug der vierten Generation (4GL) und ein relationales Datenbanksystem (Oracle) zu verwenden. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Erfahrungen, die bei der Datenmodellierung auf Basis des Entity-Relationship-Ansatzes und der Überführung in ein Relationenmodell sowie mit den Oracle-spezifischen 4GL-Werkzeugen und der dadurch ermöglichten Entwicklungsmethodik (Prototyping) gesammelt wurden. Das Informationssystem selbst ist an anderer Stelle beschrieben).
In this paper examples are given of how modern information technology may have an impact on the way we build and use computerised models for different applications. The KBS-MEDIA (knowledge-based systems-media) group of projects is described. These projects are aimed at integrating advanced software techniques (knowledge-based systems, HyperCard from Apple Computer, etc) with new distribution and storage media. The â€˜hyperdocumentsâ€™ which are created possess powerful man-machine interface and dynamic model-building properties. The system described forms a demonstration environment used in different applications to capture, test, and communicate ideas, so allowing fast prototyping. New tools for building and using â€˜hypermediaâ€™ systems have been defined, created, and tested. These tools are adapted to the needs of the people intended to use them, by means of â€˜friendlyâ€™ interfaces. Some comments are made on the ideas behind the project, as well as on how the KBS-MEDIA environment is used in the â€˜City Advisorâ€™ application.
Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 1991, 18, 1, 39.
In this paper examples are given of how modern information technology may have an impact on the way we build and use computerised models for different applications. The KBS - MEDIA (knowledge-based systems - media) group of projects is described. These projects are aimed at integrating advanced software techniques (knowledge-based systems, HyperCard from Apple Computer, etc) with new distribution and storage media. The 'hyperdocuments' which are created possess powerful man - machine interface and dynamic model-building properties. The system described forms a demonstration environment used in different applications to capture, test, and communicate ideas, so allowing fast prototyping. New tools for building and using 'hypermedia' systems have been defined, created, and tested. These tools are adapted to the needs of the people intended to use them, by means of 'friendly' interfaces. Some comments are made on the ideas behind the project, as well as on how the KBS - MEDIA environment is used in the 'City Advisor' application.
Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management, 1992, 1, 3, 207.
A classification scheme was developed to show trends and categorize articles on accounting expert systems (AES) which were written during the period 1977 to 1989 and abstracted in Brown (1989). The analysis shows that the number of articles on AES has been burgeoning since 1985. The number of introductory articles has declined, as authors have assumed reader familiarity with expert systems concepts. Research in all areas of accounting has been increasing and a wide range of issues in AES has been covered, but with an increasing emphasis on tax and auditing, perhaps due to the influence of large management consulting/accounting firms. Finally, for most subcategories within AES, the focus of the articles along the ES dimension has been on the prototyping and working model stages of development.
Yasuhiro Monden The Japanese automotive industry has already become a by-word for lean production efficiency. Recently attention has shifted to its new-product development activities, and in particular to the techniques of simultaneous engineering that generate superior performance when contrasted with the traditional linear and sequential approaches. The paper probes the cost management system that underpins the Japanese automotive product-development system, enabling a network of producers and suppliers to work cooperatively and in parallel through successive prototyping stages of the process. The core concept is the iterative development of a 'target cost' for each component of the process.
Institute of Transportation Studies, Research Reports, Working Papers, Proceedings, 1993.
Highway communications, Route choice, User interfaces (Computer systems), and route guidance
This manual provides a brief introduction to four classes of software objects developed to help a user create and test interfaces using these objects in the Interface Builder application environment. The Knob, Dial, Alert Light, and Map object classes presented here represent the beginnings of a software library of virtual interface objects designed to support a rapid prototyping environment for advanced interfaces as described in "Rapid Prototyping of Advanced Driver Interface Systems."
In diesem Beitrag wird für Decision Support Systems (DSS) ein Softwareentwicklungs- und Lebenszyklus modelliert, der grundsätzlich phasenorientiert ist, das für DSS spezifische Prototyping umfaßt, und die Abgrenzung von fünf typischen Bewertungssituationen ermöglicht. Diese Bewertungssituationen werden zu einem Bezugsrahmen erweitert, der die allgemeine Bewertungsproblematik von DSS genauer strukturiert und die Klassifikation von bisher vorgestellten Lösungsansätzen erlaubt. Dadurch kann das Gesamtverständnis für die Bewertungsproblematik von DSS erhöht und ein Beitrag zur Steigerung der Erfolgsquote von DSS-Projekten geleistet werden.
With the end of the Cold War, the relationship between military and civil technologies is being radically restructured. In the USA, the new paradigm is `dual-use', replacing `spinoff' as the main understanding of the relationship between military and civil technologies. A consequence is the re-integration of the industrial technological base of the military and the civilian sectors, and a complete redefinition of the task of the military industries and their role in technological development. Key concepts here are critical technologies, technology assessment, prototyping and flexible production. In Russia, because of the lack of strong civil actors in the vacuum succeeding the collapse of the Soviet Union, a different development track is emerging. As few examples exist of Western joint ventures, and since conversion is facing both financial and organizational barriers, the conversion problem has been reformulated. The main focus is no longer on conversion of military facilities and know-how for civilian uses. The emerging paradigm implies export of weapons inter alia, to finance conversion. However, such military exports are now justified with reference to commercial concerns. The task is to integrate Russia within the world economy and to gain access to foreign currency. This article sees these reconstructions of military technology in a theoretical perspective, as a result of which a new research agenda for peace studies emerges.