The acquisition of expert knowledge is fundamental to the certain of expert systems. The conventional approach to building expert systems assumes that the knowledge exists, and that it is feasible to find an expert who has the knowledge and can articulate it in collaboration with a knowledge engineer. This article considers the practice of knowledge engineering when these assumptions can not be strictly justified. It draws on our experiences in the design of VLSI design methods, and in the prototyping of an expert assistant for VLSI design. We suggest methods for expanding the practice of knowledge engineering when applied to fields that are fragmented and undergoing rapid evolution. We outline how the expanded practice can shape and accelerate the process of knowledge generation and refinement. Our examples also clarify some of the unarticulated present practice of knowledge engineering.
We use our experience with the Dipmeter Advisor system for well-log interpretation as a case study to examine the development of commercial expert system. We discuss the nature of these systems as we see them in the coming decade, characteristics of the evolution process, development methods, and skills required in the development team. We argue that the tools and ideas of rapid prototyping and successive refinement accelerate the development process. We note that different types of people are required at different stages of expert system development: Those who are primarily knowledgeable in the domain, but who can use the framework to expand the domain knowledge; and those who can actually design and build expert systems. Finally, we discuss the problem of technology transfer and compare our experience with some of the traditional wisdom of expert system development.
Getting started on a new knowledge engineering project is a difficult and challenging task, even for those who have done it before. For those who haven't, the task can often prove impossible. One reason is that the requirements-oriented methods and intuitions learned in the development of other types of software do not carry over well to the knowledge engineering task. Another reason is that methodologies for developing expert systems by extracting, representing, and manipulating an expert's knowledge have been slow in coming. At Tektronix, we have been using step-by-step approach to prototyping expert systems for over two years now. The primary features of this approach are that it gives software engineers who do not know knowledge engineering an easy place to start, and that it proceeds in a step-by-step fashion from initiation to implementation without inducing conceptual bottlenecks into the development process. This methodology has helped us collect the knowledge necessary to implement several prototype knowledge-based systems, including a troubleshooting assistant for the Tektronix FG-502 function generator and an operator's assistant for a wave solder machine.
Computer aided design (CAD) systems, or more generally interactive software, are today being developed for various application areas like VLSI-design, mechanical structure design, avionics design, cartographic design, architectual design, office automation, publishing, etc. Such tools are becoming more and more important in order to be productive and to be able to design quality products. One important part of CAD-software development is the man-machine interface (MMI) design.
Kastner, John, Apte, Chidanand, and Griesmer, James
AI Magazine; Vol 7, No 5: Special Issue 1986; 71
This article describes an effort to develop a knowledge-based financial marketing consultant system. Financial marketing is an excellent vehicle for both research and application in artificial intelligence (AI). This domain differs from the great majority of previous expert system domains in that there are no well-defined answers (in traditional sense); the goal here is to obtain satisfactory arguments to support the conclusions made. A large OPS5-based system was implemented as an initial prototype. We present the organization and principles underlying this system and offer our ongoing research directions. The experience gained in the initial prototyping effort is currently being used to further expert systems research and to develop an extensive system that ultimately can be used by the marketing organization.
Johan H. Aas, Karsten Brathen, Erik Nordo, and Ole Ø. Ørpen
Modeling, Identification and Control, Vol 10, Iss 1, Pp 53-63 (1989)
system analysis, prototyping, human factors, Electronic computers. Computer science, Man-machine systems, ComputerApplications_COMPUTERSINOTHERSYSTEMS, guidance systems, QA75.5-76.95, and underseas systems
Important man-machine interface (MMI) issues concerning a submarine command and weapon control system (CWCS) such as crew organization, automation level and decision support are discussed in this paper. Generic submarine CWCS functions and operating conditions are outlined. Detailed, dynamic and real-time prototypes were used to support the MMI design. The prototypes are described and experience with detailed prototyping is discussed. Some of the main interaction principles are summarized and a restricted example of the resulting design is given. Our design experience and current work have been used to outline future perspectives of MMI design in naval CWCSs. The need for both formal and experimental approaches is emphasized.
Grønbæk, K 1989, ' Rapid Prototyping with Fourth Generation Systems - an Empirical Study ' Information Technology and People, vol. 5, no. 2 . https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000003530
Computer systems, Fourth-generation lanuguages, Information technology, and Research
Discusses experiences on the development and use of horizontal and vertical prototypes. Explains the difference. Resolves that horizontal prototypes can be developed with 'little effort', but end users are reluctant to become involved in the development process. Contrastingly resolves that vertical prototypes appear to stimulate constructive response. Reasons that developers should be aware of the tacit knowledge which plays an important part in users' work practices and should be involved early in the development process. Proposes three techniques to meet the requirements – participation, simulation and evaluation.