RAPID prototyping, SEARCH algorithms, DIELECTRIC-loaded antennas, THREE-dimensional printing, and PERMITTIVITY
A prototyping method for dielectrically loaded antennas is presented. Dielectric loading has been used with horn antennas, feeds, and lenses. Dielectrics have also been used for coating antennas submerged in water and biological matter and have led to improvements in bandwidth and efficiency as well as antenna miniaturisation. The authors present a new technique to produce variable dielectrics with permittivity from 6 to 28 using two commonly available powders, titanium dioxide (used in foods) and magnesium silicate (used in talcum powder). An example spherical helical ball antenna is used to demonstrate the process. In this antenna, the mixed powders were encased in a 3D printed shell that achieved a reduction in diameter of the spherical antenna by a factor of 1.85. The technique aids rapid prototyping and optimisation using search algorithms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
International Journal of Production Research. May2016, Vol. 54 Issue 10, p3118-3132. 15p. 7 Diagrams, 1 Chart.
RAPID prototyping, TREND analysis in business, PROTOTYPES, TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, MANUFACTURING processes, and THREE-dimensional printing
The rapid prototyping has been developed from the 1980s to produce models and prototypes until the technologies evolution today. Nowadays, these technologies have other names such as 3D printing or additive manufacturing, and so forth, but they all have the same origins from rapid prototyping. The design and manufacturing process stood the same until new requirements such as a better integration on production line, a largest series of manufacturing or the reduce weight of products due to heavy costs of machines and materials. The ability to produce complex geometries allows proposing of design and manufacturing solutions in the industrial field in order to be ever more effective. The additive manufacturing (AM) technology develops rapidly with news solutions and markets which sometimes need to demonstrate their reliability. The community needs to survey some evolutions such as the new exchange format, the faster 3D printing systems, the advanced numerical simulation or the emergence of new use. This review is addressed to persons who wish have a global view on the AM and improve their understanding. We propose to review the different AM technologies and the new trends to get a global overview through the engineering and manufacturing process. This article describes the engineering and manufacturing cycle with the 3D model management and the most recent technologies from the evolution of additive manufacturing. Finally, the use of AM resulted in new trends that are exposed below with the description of some new economic activities. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Meier, Marlon, Tan, Kim Hua, Lim, Ming K., and Chung, Leanne
Business Process Management Journal. 2019, Vol. 25 Issue 3, p456-475. 20p.
RAPID prototyping, SPORTS business, NEW product development, SPORTING goods industry, MASS production, and THREE-dimensional printing
Purpose: Fast-changing customer demands and rising requirements in product performance constantly challenge sports equipment manufacturers to come up with new and improved products to stay competitive. Additive manufacturing (AM), also referred to as 3D printing, can enhance the development of new products by providing an efficient approach of rapid prototyping. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current adoption of AM technologies in the innovation process of the sports industry, i.e. level of awareness; how it is implemented; and it impact on the innovation process. Design/methodology/approach: This work followed a qualitative research approach. After conducting a research of the current literature, this paper presents findings that include case studies from different companies, as well as a semi-structured interview with an outdoor sports equipment manufacturer. Companies from all over the world and of different sizes from under 100 employees to over 70,000 employees were considered in this research. Findings: Literature research shows that AM brings many possibilities to enhance the innovation process, and case studies indicated several obstacles that hinder the technology from fully unfolding. AM is still at the early stage of entering the sports equipment industry and its potential benefits have not been fully exploited yet. The findings generated from the research of real-life practices show that AM provides several benefits when it comes to the innovation process, such as a faster development process, an optimised output, as well as the possibility to create new designs. However, companies are not yet able to enhance the innovation process in a way that leads to new products and new markets with AM. Limitations, including a small range of process able material and an inefficient mass production, still restrain the technology and lead to unused capability. Nevertheless, future prospects indicate the growing importance of AM in the innovation process and show that its advancement paves the way to new and innovative products. Research limitations/implications: Limitations exist in the qualitative approach of this study, which does not include the quantitative verification of the results. Originality/value: Very few studies have been conducted to investigate how firms can harvest AM to increase their innovation capabilities. How firms can use AM to shorten product development time is an emerging topic in business and operations but has not been studied widely. This paper aims to address this gap. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, ENGINEERING design, THREE-dimensional printing, MATERIALS, 3-D printers, and DIGITAL printing presses
An interview with Nadav Goshen, chief executive officer (CEO) of MakerBot Industries, is presented. Topic include the platform was designed for engineers who need immediate access to a 3D printer that can deliver industrial performance but at a significantly lower cost, and also providing engineers with more material options by working with filament suppliers to offer a wider range of materials.
RAPID prototyping, GEARING, THREE-dimensional printing, GEARBOXES, and HELICAL gears
The article provides information on possibilities of different types of gear in prototyping and their role in our everyday life. Topics discussed include gears like straight cut spur, helical, and alternative gear trains; harvesting of gears from another product, and requirement for 3D printing and custom gearing.
Current methods for rapid prototyping of composite products, applied by a computer during manufacturing, allow for materializing even the most complex 3D objects created in a CAD application in a very short time and without any subsequent processing. After determining the validity of a designed prototype, it can be physically implemented using standard methods or tools for plastic injection molding. This paper presents application of commercial CAD programming packages in modelling 3D objects for rapid implementation of composite prototypes using layer-by-layer method. This specific method, in which the shape of the product is built by adding, instead of separation or deformation of materials, offers a number of advantages over other similar methods. Amongst the most prominent ones are producing parts directly from a file, reduced processing and operation planning time, process implementation without the use of tools, reduced production cost, increased product quality, improved design, faster audit and product review. This method slowly gives way to the process of 3D printing, which, according to some indicators, being current job in the next 20 years. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, MANUFACTURING processes, THREE-dimensional printing, 3-D printers, and DIGITAL printing
The article focuses on the evolution and improvements on 3D printer, one of the most important tools for product development as it helps prototypers build parts in a matter of hours, when machining or molding can take days or weeks. Information on some of the innovations include high-performance filaments, multi-material printing, and metal printing.
RAPID prototyping, INJECTION molding, THERMOPLASTICS, SILICONE rubber, NUMERICAL control of machine tools, and THREE-dimensional printing
The article focuses on digital manufacturing model is accelerating from rapid prototypes and first-run production parts to "on-demand" short-run manufacturing with injection molding services. It mentions one-demand injection molding of thermoplastics and silicone rubber outpaced its prototyping business for the first time. It also mentions new processes within injection molding and computerized numerical control (CNC) machining with additive manufacturing.
Composites: Part A, Applied Science & Manufacturing. Feb2020, Vol. 129, pN.PAG-N.PAG. 1p.
RAPID prototyping, THREE-dimensional printing, SPORTING goods, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY, and AUTHORSHIP
The advent of 3D printing has enabled the rapid prototyping of complex structures with relatively shorter production times and lower material wastage. Despite these advantages, it is still a challenge to fabricate nanofiller-reinforced lattices using 3D printing. Here, we report for the first time, the successful 3D printing of graphene-polymer octet-truss lattices using the stereolithography (SLA) technique. The factors influencing the mechanical properties of the printed graphene-polymer composite, such as filler concentration, solvent addition and post-fabrication baking temperature and duration were investigated in detail. Our results showed that stereolithographic 3D printing can confer the same improvement in material modulus with ~ 10 times less graphene concentration compared to other processing techniques reported in literature. Our calculations suggest that this was due to a unique characteristic of stereolithography, which enabled the selection and incorporation of aligned graphene platelets into the polymer matrix during the 3D printing process. These exceptional mechanical properties of SLA fabricated polymer-graphene composites are indicative of their potential for use in various applications such as aerospace, automotive and sports equipment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The article offers information on the benefits of additive manufacturing, three-dimensional (3D) printing, and rapid prototyping in manufacturing products. Topics discussed include the use of fused deposition modeling in additive manufacturing, the use of computer-aided design (CAD) software to design the products to be manufactured, and the use of low durometer silicone in producing parts with negative draft.
3-D printing technology has attracted growing interest of many researchers in the area of antenna design as a new prototyping and manufacturing technology. It is capable of forming arbitrary 3-D structures with lower cost and shorter prototyping time. This paper aims to present a novel methodology to control antenna radiation pattern based on 3-D printing of specially designed dielectric material, which realizes spatially dependent dielectric constants around the antenna. As a proof-of-concept, we propose a design of a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna surrounded by a 3-D-printed polymer structure with an optimized dielectric property distribution. Unlike the conventional donut-shaped pattern of a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna, one-beam and multiple-beam patterns are obtained using a genetic-algorithm-based optimization. Different dielectric constant spatial distributions are realized by changing the ratio of the dielectric to air at the unit cell level in the entire antenna volume. A two-beam monopole prototype is designed, fabricated, and tested. The measurement results demonstrate agreement with the simulation results. The proposed design method enables another degree of freedom for antenna design, which can be extended to other types of antennas. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, ENERGY consumption, THREE-dimensional printing, SUSTAINABILITY, and STEREOLITHOGRAPHY
Additive manufacturing (AM), also referred as three-dimensional printing or rapid prototyping, has been implemented in various areas as one of the most promising new manufacturing technologies in the past three decades. In addition to the growing public interest in developing AM into a potential mainstream manufacturing approach, increasing concerns on environmental sustainability, especially on energy consumption, have been presented. To date, research efforts have been dedicated to quantitatively measuring and analyzing the energy consumption of AM processes. Such efforts only covered partial types of AM processes and explored inadequate factors that might influence the energy consumption. In addition, energy consumption modeling for AM processes has not been comprehensively studied. To fill the research gap, this article presents a mathematical model for the energy consumption of stereolithography (SLA)-based processes. To validate the mathematical model, experiments are conducted to measure the real energy consumption from an SLA-based AM machine. The design of experiments method is adopted to examine the impacts of different parameters and their potential interactions on the overall energy consumption. For the purpose of minimization of the total energy consumption, a response optimization method is used to identify the optimal combination of parameters. The surface quality of the product built using a set of optimal parameters is obtained and compared with parts built with different parameter combinations. The comparison results show that the overall energy consumption from SLA-based AM processes can be significantly reduced through optimal parameter setting, without observable product quality decay. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The continued expansion of additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, evolving from its initial role as a rapid prototyping method, toward effective resources for generating final products, is reshaping the production sector and its needs. The development of systematic methodologies for the generation of mechanically optimized support structures for AM processes is an important issue which impacts the eco-efficiency and quality of final parts. The shift from regular lattice support structures and complex support meshes, toward bioinspired support structures, using, for instance, tree-like and fractal geometries, may provide feasible solutions with optimal ratios between mechanical performance and quantity of material used. In a similar way as biomimetics has provided revolutionary solutions to fields including architecture, mechanical engineering, and civil engineering, it may well impact the field of solid freeform fabrication. The possibilities relate not just to aspects related to part geometries and final applications (as is already happening), but also in manufacturing challenges such as the problem of obtaining eco-efficient and reliable supports. In this article, we summarize a recently developed methodology, in the framework of the European Union (EU) 'ToMax' Project, for the generation of bioinspired fractal or tree-like support structures and provide six application examples, starting with very simple geometries and generalizing the process for more complex parts. Eco-efficiency is assessed by a final comparative study using support structures generated with conventional software. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, PRODUCT design, THREE-dimensional printing, DESIGN education, and DESIGN research
Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) is a growing field of enquiry. Over the past few years, the scientific community has begun to explore this topic to provide a basis for supporting professional design practice. However, current knowledge is still largely fragmented, difficult to access and inconsistent in language and presentation. This paper seeks to collate and organise this dispersed but growing body of knowledge, using a single and coherent conceptual framework. The framework is based on a generic design process model and consists of five parts: Conceptual design, Embodiment design, Detail design and Process planning and Process selection. 81 articles on DfAM are mapped onto the framework to provide, for the first time, a clear summary of the state of the art across the whole design process. Nine directions for the future of DfAM research are then proposed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]