Hydraulic simulation tools, such as EPANET, are the primary tools for evaluating water distribution systems performance. This work presents a first step towards demonstrating a simple and straightforward implementation of plugins in the new EPANET GUI to facilitate plugins development by the water systems modeling community. The paper shows the code structure and the basic functionalities of a custom plugin demonstrated using three specific examples: Count , FireFlow, and Elevations plugins. A prototype repository, where developers and users can share and download EPANET plugins is presented and discussed. EPANET plugins framework can support knowledge transfer by increasing the visibility and usability of developed analytical tools and software, thus providing benefits for researchers and practitioners. The proposed plugins are freely available through GitHub. • Development and implementation of new custom EPANET plugins is demonstrated. • Prototype repository for distributing, documenting, and downloading plugins is discussed. • Advancing the EPANET plugin framework can support collaborative modeling and information sharing. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Wetland ecology, Nutrient cycles, Rapid prototyping, Geographic information systems, Computer simulation, Ecosystem services, and Metadata
Abstract: Great interest currently exists for developing ecosystem models to forecast how ecosystem services may change under alternative land use and climate futures. Ecosystem services are diverse and include supporting services or functions (e.g., primary production, nutrient cycling), provisioning services (e.g., wildlife, groundwater), regulating services (e.g., water purification, floodwater retention), and even cultural services (e.g., ecotourism, cultural heritage). Hence, the knowledge base necessary to quantify ecosystem services is broad and derived from many diverse scientific disciplines. Building the required interdisciplinary models is especially challenging as modelers from different locations and times may develop the disciplinary models needed for ecosystem simulations, and these models must be identified and made accessible to the interdisciplinary simulation. Additional difficulties include inconsistent data structures, formats, and metadata required by geospatial models as well as limitations on computing, storage, and connectivity. Traditional standalone and closed network systems cannot fully support sharing and integrating interdisciplinary geospatial models from variant sources. To address this need, we developed an approach to openly share and access geospatial computational models using distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and open geospatial standards. We included a means to share computational models compliant with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services (WPS) standard to ensure modelers have an efficient and simplified means to publish new models. To demonstrate our approach, we developed five disciplinary models that can be integrated and shared to simulate a few of the ecosystem services (e.g., water storage, waterfowl breeding) that are provided by wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Aquatic ecology, Nature, Open source software, Geochemical modeling, Prediction (Logic), Atmospheric models, Micrometers, and Computer software
Abstract: The concentrations of many natural compounds are altered by chemical and biological transformations, and physical processes such as adsorption and transport. Their fate can be predicted using reactive transport models that describe reaction and advective and dispersive movement of these components in their natural environment. Recently a number of software packages have been implemented in the open source software R that allow one to implement reactive transport models. Central to this is the ReacTran R-package, a comprehensive collection of functions for modeling reactive components that may be distributed over multiple phases, whose dynamics are coupled through biological and geochemical reactions, and that are transported in one-, two- or three-dimensional domains with simple geometries. Dedicated solution methods are in R-packages deSolve and rootSolve. The modeling packages facilitate the simulation of reaction and transport of components for spatial scales ranging from micrometers to kilometers and spanning multiple time-scales. As they are influenced in similar ways, the same functions can solve biogeochemical models of the sediment, groundwater, rivers, estuaries, lakes or water columns, experimental setups, or even describe reaction and transport within flat, cylindrical or spherical bodies, such as organisms, aggregates, or the dispersion of individuals on flat surfaces and so on. We illustrate the use of R for reactive transport modeling by three applications spanning several orders of magnitude with respect to spatial and temporal scales. They comprise (1) a model of an experimental flow-through sediment reactor, where fitting so-called breakthrough curves are used to derive sulfate reduction rates in an estuarine sediment, (2) a conservative and reactive tracer addition experiment in a small stream, which implements the concept of river spiraling, and (3) a 2-D and 3-D model that describes oxygen dynamics in the upper layers of the sediment, interspersed with several hotspots of increased reaction intensities. The packages ReacTran, deSolve and rootSolve are implemented in the software R and thus available for all popular platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac). Models implemented using this software are short and easily readable, yet they are efficiently solved. This makes R extremely well suited for rapid model prototyping. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Science of the Total Environment. Jun2019, Vol. 668, p485-499. 15p.
Abstract Among all the recent improvements in the railway industry, ground vibration remains an important showstopper in metropolitan cities. In some particular cases, significant levels of vibration are felt by residents. The role of engineers is to propose mitigation solutions and to ensure that they are efficient in the long-term. This paper presents a numerical study of a large-scale building close to underground networks. A two-step time-frequency prediction method for train-induced vibrations of a superstructure is proposed in this work. In the first step, the spatial train-track coupled dynamic model in time domain is established and then simulated to obtain the vertical and lateral rail supporting forces (fastener forces). In the second step, the discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of fastener forces are taken as the external loads of a finite element (FE) model of the track-tunnel-soil-building system to solve the building vibrations. On this basis, train-induced vibrations of the large-scale building are predicted under different train operation conditions, and two relevant standards are adopted to evaluate the building vibrations. Further, a base isolation measure, that consists in installing steel springs between the superstructure and the base, is employed to mitigate excessive building vibration. Results show that the underground train and track interaction could result in over-limit building vibrations. The train moving with a higher speed will deteriorate track vibration level and leads to more serious extent of over-limit vibrations of the larger-scale building. The base isolation measure can effectively reduce the excessive building vibrations, and also ensures the train-induced vibrations of the building to satisfy the relevant standard requirements under the worst train operation conditions. Graphical abstract Unlabelled Image Highlights • Underground train-induced vibrations are considered. • Virtual prototyping is an efficient tool to analyse ground-borne vibrations. • A prediction scheme is used to calculated vibrations in large-scale building. • VAL and VALIF indicators are used for analyzing the structural vibrations. • Mitigation measures are brought by anti-seismic base isolations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Rainfall, Watersheds, Hydrologic models, Rainfall probabilities, Flood forecasting, Remote-sensing images, and International rivers
Abstract: A new era involving both simple and complex hydrologic modeling of un-gauged river basins may now emerge with the anticipated global availability of high resolution satellite rainfall data from the proposed Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. This era of application pertains to rapid prototyping of GPM-based flood monitoring systems for downstream nations in International River Basins (IRBs) where basin-wide in-situ rainfall data is unavailable due to lack of either an infrastructure or a treaty for real-time data sharing with upstream riparian nations. In this paper, we develop, verify and apply an open-book watershed model for demonstrating the value of a parsimonious modeling scheme in quick prototyping of satellite rainfall-based flood monitoring systems for lowermost nations in flood-prone IRBs. The open-book watershed modeling concept was first formulated by Yen and Chow [1969. A laboratory study of surface runoff due to moving rainstorms. Water Resources Research 5(5), 989–1006] more than 30years ago as a convenient and pragmatic framework to understand the underlying physics behind surface hydrologic phenomena. Our developed model is based on first principles of conservation of mass and momentum that parsimoniously represents the static geophysical features of a basin with minimum calibration. Such a generic and parsimonious representation has the added potential to supplement complex hydrologic models for stakeholder involvement and conflict management in transboundary river basins, among many additional applications. We first demonstrate the physical consistency of our model through sensitivity analysis of some geophysical basin parameters pertinent to the rainfall-runoff transformation. Next, we simulate the stream-flow hydrograph for a 4-month long period using basin-wide radar (WSR-88D) rainfall data over Oklahoma assuming an open-book river basin configuration. Finally, using the radar-simulated hydrograph as the benchmark, and assuming a two-nation hypothetical IRB over Oklahoma, we explored the impact of assimilating NASA''s real-time satellite rainfall data (IR-3B41RT) over the upstream nation on the flow monitoring accuracy for the downstream nation. We developed a relationship defining the improvement in flow monitoring that can be expected from assimilating IR-3B41RT over transboundary regions as a function of the relative area occupied by the downstream nation for a semi-arid region. The relative improvement in flow monitoring accuracy for the downstream nation was found to be clearly high (over 35% reduction in root mean squared error) when more than 90% of the basin is transboundary. However, flow monitoring accuracy reduces considerably and even becomes negative when 60% or less of the basin area is transboundary to the downstream nation. Our findings, although hypothetical and very regime-specific, illustrate very clearly the feasibility of utilizing anticipated GPM data to alleviate the current flood monitoring limitations experienced by many nations in IRBs through the application of a generic and parsimonious model. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Deda Altan, Burcin, Altan, Gurkan, and Kovan, Volkan
Renewable Energy: An International Journal. Dec2016, Vol. 99, p584-591. 8p.
Rotors, Torque, 3-D printers, Rapid prototyping, and Computational fluid dynamics
In this study increasing the performance of Conventional Savonius wind rotor has been investigated by a 3D (three dimensional) printer which is one of the rapid prototyping techniques. For this purpose, some design changes have been introduced to increase the performance of conventional Savonius wind rotor. Here, 3D digital designing of Savonius wind rotors have been easily manufactured tangible as a physical model by a 3D printer. Experimental data concerning produced Savonius wind rotors have been acquired by using a wind tunnel. Some numerical data have been obtained from the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis carried out under the same conditions. The effects of the additional blade end design have been examined to obtain more torque increase on improved classical Savonius wind rotor. Furthermore, by means of introducing straight blade, the effects of the flow compression inside the blade have been reduced and rotor performance increased. Based on such optimizations, optimum additional design parameters have been designated as that (1/r) ratio is 0.3, (s/r) is 1, and (α) additional straight blade angle is 135°. It has been determined that power coefficient is increased at a ratio of around 20% together with all these design changes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Calautit, John Kaiser, Hughes, Ben Richard, and Shahzad, Sally Salome
Renewable Energy: An International Journal. Nov2015, Vol. 83, p85-99. 15p.
Air flow, Computational fluid dynamics, Wind tunnels, Heat transfer instruments, Natural ventilation, and Rapid prototyping
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel analysis were conducted to investigate the performance of a uni-directional wind catcher. A detailed experimental benchmark model was created using rapid prototyping and tested in a closed-loop subsonic wind tunnel. An accurate geometrical representation of the wind tunnel test set-up was recreated in the numerical modelling. Experimental results for the indoor and external airflow, supply rate, and pressure coefficients were compared with the numerical results. Smoke visualisation experiment was also conducted to further analyse the detailed airflow structure within the wind catcher and also inside the test room. Following the successful validation of the benchmark CFD model, cylindrical Heat Transfer Devices (HTD) were integrated into the uni-directional wind catcher model to reduce the temperature of air induced into the ventilated space. The findings of the CFD study displayed that the proposed wind catcher was capable of reducing the supply temperature by up to 12 K within the micro-climate depending on the outdoor air speed. However, the addition of the cylindrical HTD also reduced the air supply rates by up to 20–35%. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Santos, Luis, Schleicher, Simon, and Caldas, Luisa
Building & Environment. Feb2017, Vol. 112, p144-158. 15p.
Energy consumption of buildings, Computer-aided design, Computer graphics, Rapid prototyping, and Algorithms
This work presents a new methodology to automate the derivation of Building Energy Models (BEMs) from complex 3D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) geometry. The goal is to combine current parametric modeling, digital fabrication, and computer graphics techniques to automatically generate the geometric input of an energy model from any digital 3D model of a building. Such automation facilitates the use and implementation of goal-oriented design methods that integrate energy performance with other types of building performance models. In this work, mesh planarization algorithms, which are currently used in computer graphics and in digital fabrication methods, are used and adapted to automate and optimize the parsing of non-planar surfaces to EnergyPlus (E+), a popular BEM engine. The proposed methodology facilitates the modeling of thermal zones with double-curved envelopes, which is a time-consuming task that typically requires a high level of expertise from the energy modeler. The proposed single, streamlined workflow generates digital models that are suitable for both energy optimization and digital fabrication, thereby facilitating the integration of two parallel design procedures at the core of an architectural design process. Through this workflow, a single CAD model generates solutions that are energy efficient and feasibly fabricated using digital techniques. This goal-oriented design workflow is applied in the study of fritting pattern densities for three complex double-curved building geometries. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. Sep2017, Vol. 77, p1349-1362. 14p.
Sustainability, Teaching demonstrations, Technological innovations, Learning, and Prototypes
This article develops a model of sustainable energy demonstration projects, based on a review of 229 scientific publications on demonstrations in renewable and sustainable energy. The model addresses the basic organizational characteristics (aim, cooperative form, and physical location) and learning effects (technical, organizational, policy and market learning) of sustainable energy demonstration projects (prototyping, organizing, and market demonstrations). This article concludes that a main effect of the reviewed demonstrations is that these projects enable people to learn to further develop, apply and commercialize sustainable, renewable and clean energy technologies. They provide four specific learning opportunities; they 1) enable scientists and technicians to learn how to technically develop sustainable energy prototypes; 2) facilitate technicians and managers to learn to build an organization that produces these sustainable energy prototypes on a large(r) scale; 3) help public policy officers to learn to develop public policy that stimulates the commercialization process of these sustainable energy prototypes; and 4) support commercial professionals to learn how to bring sustainable energy prototypes to the market. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Environmental information is available to managers through a broad range of methods and tools, from raw data provision to knowledge-baseddecision support systems. The design of `environmental information systems' (EISs) to enhance the use of environmental information includes consideration of data formats, user interface, the nature of management questions, data characteristics such as variability, reliability and periodicity, and the management culture within which the EIS isintended for use. One of the principles of EIS design is that the designer must know potential users -their wishes, needs, likes and dislikes. Interface prototyping is an approach to EIS design that provides designers with useful information about users and their interactionwith the EIS under construction. A case study of interface prototyping in EIS design was carried out in development of a water balance assessment program for farm management planning. It was found that the approach opened the minds of potential users to the opportunities afforded by a well-designed information system, provided identification of required data, imposed a scientific rigour that transformed an ill-structured problem into a structured one, and resulted in widespreaduse of the program. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Abstract: This study analyzes how and why a firm''s change program to create a market-oriented innovation process depends on its environmental, innovational and organizational context. Based on an organizational-learning capabilities framework, the results from a multiple case study indicate how a firm''s change objectives, activities and approach are affected by this context. Whereas in low-tech firms a market-back approach with changes in organization structure and project management structure was effective, high-tech firms were more effective implementing a combined programmatic and market-back approach with changes also in philosophy and process management structure. The study contributes to theory by demonstrating that a firm''s change program depends on its context and a one-best-way-fits-all change program is not feasible. It also shows that the change program could start with a coherent set of changes in structures, systems instead of starting with people''s values and attitudes in order to change their behavior. The findings suggest that firms use a much more fragmented emergent approach to organizational change than the literature suggests. In addition, managers creating a market orientation in a key process – product innovation – need to use an approach different from a cultural change program as often advocated to change a whole organization. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Polychlorinated biphenyls, Manufacturing processes, Organochlorine compounds, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated dibenzofurans, Time to market (New products), Rapid prototyping, and Brand name products
Monsanto produced two distinct variants of Aroclor 1254. The late-production variant resulted from a change in Monsanto''s manufacturing process in the early 1970s. Previous literature had reported that the late-production variant was produced from 1974 to 1976, but subsequent work has identified a sample known to be obtained in 1972. In this paper, we present congener-specific PCB and PCDD/F data for this 1972 late-production sample, and a brief historical record of late-production Aroclor 1254. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]