Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) [Medicina (Kaunas)] 2022 Jul 19; Vol. 58 (7). Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Jul 19.
Adult, Computers, Humans, Technology, Transplantation, Autologous methods, Cone-Beam Computed Tomography methods, and Molar, Third surgery
The use of computer-aided rapid prototyping (CARP) models was considered to reduce surgical trauma and improve outcomes when autotransplantation of teeth (ATT) became a viable alternative for dental rehabilitation. However, ATT is considered technique-sensitive due to its series of complicated surgical procedures and unfavorable outcomes in complex cases. This study reported a novel autotransplantation technique of a 28-year-old patient with an unrestorable lower first molar (#36) with double roots. Regardless of a large shape deviation, a lower third molar (#38) with a completely single root formation was used as the donor tooth. ATT was performed with a combined use of virtual simulation, CARP model-based rehearsed surgery, and tooth replica-guided surgery. A 3D virtual model of the donor and recipient site was generated from cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) radiographs prior to surgery for direct virtual superimposition simulation and CARP model fabrication. The virtual simulation indicated that it was necessary to retain cervical alveolar bone during the surgical socket preparation, and an intensive surgical rehearsal was performed on the CARP models. The donor tooth replica was used during the procedure to guide precise socket preparation and avoid periodontal ligament injury. Without an additional fitting trial and extra-alveolar storage, the donor tooth settled naturally into the recipient socket within 30 s. The transplanted tooth showed excellent stability and received routine root canal treatment three weeks post-surgery, and the one-year follow-up examination verified the PDL healing outcome and normal functioning. Patient was satisfied with the transplanted tooth. This cutting-edge technology combines virtual simulation, digital surgery planning, and guided surgery implementation to ensure predictable and minimally invasive therapy in complex cases.
Esquirol L, McNeale D, Douglas T, Vickers CE, and Sainsbury F
ACS synthetic biology [ACS Synth Biol] 2022 Jul 26. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Jul 26.
Protein cages are attractive as molecular scaffolds for the fundamental study of enzymes and metabolons and for the creation of biocatalytic nanoreactors for in vitro and in vivo use. Virus-like particles (VLPs) such as those derived from the P22 bacteriophage capsid protein make versatile self-assembling protein cages and can be used to encapsulate a broad range of protein cargos. In vivo encapsulation of enzymes within VLPs requires fusion to the coat protein or a scaffold protein. However, the expression level, stability, and activity of cargo proteins can vary upon fusion. Moreover, it has been shown that molecular crowding of enzymes inside VLPs can affect their catalytic properties. Consequently, testing of numerous parameters is required for production of the most efficient nanoreactor for a given cargo enzyme. Here, we present a set of acceptor vectors that provide a quick and efficient way to build, test, and optimize cargo loading inside P22 VLPs. We prototyped the system using a yellow fluorescent protein and then applied it to mevalonate kinases (MKs), a key enzyme class in the industrially important terpene (isoprenoid) synthesis pathway. Different MKs required considerably different approaches to deliver maximal encapsulation as well as optimal kinetic parameters, demonstrating the value of being able to rapidly access a variety of encapsulation strategies. The vector system described here provides an approach to optimize cargo enzyme behavior in bespoke P22 nanoreactors. This will facilitate industrial applications as well as basic research on nanoreactor-cargo behavior.