Lim SW, Choi IS, Lee BN, Ryu J, Park HJ, and Cho JH
American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics [Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop] 2022 Jul; Vol. 162 (1), pp. 108-121. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Mar 11.
Gan R, Cabezas MD, Pan M, Zhang H, Hu G, Clark LG, Jewett MC, and Nicol R
ACS synthetic biology [ACS Synth Biol] 2022 Jun 17; Vol. 11 (6), pp. 2108-2120. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 May 12.
Gene Library, Protein Biosynthesis, Synthetic Biology, High-Throughput Screening Assays, and Microfluidics methods
Engineering regulatory parts for improved performance in genetic programs has played a pivotal role in the development of the synthetic biology cell programming toolbox. Here, we report the development of a novel high-throughput platform for regulatory part prototyping and analysis that leverages the advantages of engineered DNA libraries, cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS), high-throughput emulsion droplet microfluidics, standard flow sorting adapted to screen droplet reactions, and next-generation sequencing (NGS). With this integrated platform, we screened the activity of millions of genetic parts within hours, followed by NGS retrieval of the improved designs. This in vitro platform is particularly valuable for engineering regulatory parts of nonmodel organisms, where in vivo high-throughput screening methods are not readily available. The platform can be extended to multipart screening of complete genetic programs to optimize yield and stability.
Piadyk Y, Steers B, Mydlarz C, Salman M, Fuentes M, Khan J, Jiang H, Ozbay K, Bello JP, and Silva C
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) [Sensors (Basel)] 2022 May 17; Vol. 22 (10). Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 May 17.
Humans, Intelligence, and Software
Sensor networks have dynamically expanded our ability to monitor and study the world. Their presence and need keep increasing, and new hardware configurations expand the range of physical stimuli that can be accurately recorded. Sensors are also no longer simply recording the data, they process it and transform into something useful before uploading to the cloud. However, building sensor networks is costly and very time consuming. It is difficult to build upon other people's work and there are only a few open-source solutions for integrating different devices and sensing modalities. We introduce REIP, a Reconfigurable Environmental Intelligence Platform for fast sensor network prototyping. REIP's first and most central tool, implemented in this work, is an open-source software framework, an SDK, with a flexible modular API for data collection and analysis using multiple sensing modalities. REIP is developed with the aim of being user-friendly, device-agnostic, and easily extensible, allowing for fast prototyping of heterogeneous sensor networks. Furthermore, our software framework is implemented in Python to reduce the entrance barrier for future contributions. We demonstrate the potential and versatility of REIP in real world applications, along with performance studies and benchmark REIP SDK against similar systems.
We present a low-cost, accessible, and rapid fabrication process for electrochemical microfluidic sensors. This work leverages the accessibility of consumer-grade electronic craft cutters as the primary tool for patterning of sensor electrodes and microfluidic circuits, while commodity materials such as gold leaf, silver ink pen, double-sided tape, plastic transparency films, and fabric adhesives are used as its base structural materials. The device consists of three layers, the silver reference electrode layer at the top, the PET fluidic circuits in the middle and the gold sensing electrodes at the bottom. Separation of the silver reference electrode from the gold sensing electrodes reduces the possibility of cross-contamination during surface modification. A novel approach in mesoscale patterning of gold leaf electrodes can produce generic designs with dimensions as small as 250 μm. Silver electrodes with dimensions as small as 385 μm were drawn using a plotter and a silver ink pen, and fluid microchannels as small as 300 μm were fabricated using a sandwich of iron-on adhesives and PET. Device layers are then fused together using an office laminator. The integrated microfluidic electrochemical platform has electrode kinetics/performance of Δ Ep = 91.3 mV, Ipa / Ipc = 0.905, characterized by cyclic voltammetry using a standard ferrocyanide redox probe, and this was compared against a commercial screen-printed gold electrode (Δ Ep = 68.9 mV, Ipa / Ipc = 0.984). To validate the performance of the integrated microfluidic electrochemical platform, a catalytic hydrogen peroxide sensor and enzyme-coupled glucose biosensors were developed as demonstrators. Hydrogen peroxide quantitation achieves a limit of detection of 0.713 mM and sensitivity of 78.37 μA mM -1 cm -2 , while glucose has a limit of detection of 0.111 mM and sensitivity of 12.68 μA mM -1 cm -2 . This rapid process allows an iterative design-build-test cycle in under 2 hours. The upfront cost to set up the system is less than USD 520, with each device costing less than USD 0.12, making this manufacturing process suitable for low-resource laboratories or classroom settings.
ACS applied materials & interfaces [ACS Appl Mater Interfaces] 2022 Mar 30; Vol. 14 (12), pp. 14774-14782. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Mar 17.
This paper demonstrates laser forming, localized heating with a laser to induce plastic deformation, can self-fold 2D printed circuit boards (PCBs) into 3D structures with electronic function. There are many methods for self-folding but few are compatible with electronic materials. We use a low-cost commercial laser writer to both cut and fold a commercial flexible PCB. Laser settings are tuned to select between cutting and folding with higher power resulting in cutting and lower power resulting in localized heating for folding into 3D shapes. Since the thin copper traces used in commercial PCBs are highly reflective and difficult to directly fold, two approaches are explored for enabling folding: plating with a nickel/gold coating or using a single, high-power laser exposure to oxidize the surface and improve laser absorption. We characterized the physical effect of the exposure on the sample as well as the fold angle as a function of laser passes and demonstrate the ability to lift weights comparable with circuit packages and passive components. This technique can form complex, multifold structures with integrated electronics; as a demonstrator, we fold a commercial board with a common timing circuit. Laser forming to add a third dimension to printed circuit boards is an important technology to enable the rapid prototyping of complex 3D electronics.
Human gait is a unique behavioral characteristic that can be used to recognize individuals. Collecting gait information widely by the means of wearable devices and recognizing people by the data has become a topic of research. While most prior studies collected gait information using inertial measurement units, we gather the data from 40 people using insoles, including pressure sensors, and precisely identify the gait phases from the long time series using the pressure data. In terms of recognizing people, there have been a few recent studies on neural network-based approaches for solving the open set gait recognition problem using wearable devices. Typically, these approaches determine decision boundaries in the latent space with a limited number of samples. Motivated by the fact that such methods are sensitive to the values of hyper-parameters, as our first contribution, we propose a new network model that is less sensitive to changes in the values using a new prototyping encoder-decoder network architecture. As our second contribution, to overcome the inherent limitations due to the lack of transparency and interpretability of neural networks, we propose a new module that enables us to analyze which part of the input is relevant to the overall recognition performance using explainable tools such as sensitivity analysis (SA) and layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP).
The Analyst [Analyst] 2022 Feb 14; Vol. 147 (4), pp. 587-596. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Feb 14.
Capillary Action, Polymers, Porosity, Lab-On-A-Chip Devices, and Microfluidics
Paper-based microfluidics was initially developed for use in ultra-low-cost diagnostics powered passively by liquid wicking. However, there is significant untapped potential in using paper to internally guide porous microfluidic flows using externally applied pressure gradients. Here, we present a new technique for fabricating and utilizing low-cost polymer-laminated paper-based microfluidic devices using external pressure. Known as microfluidic pressure in paper (μPiP), devices fabricated by this technique are capable of sustaining a pressure gradient for use in precise liquid handling and manipulation applications similar to conventional microfluidic open-channel designs, but instead where fluid is driven directly through the porous paper structure. μPiP devices can be both rapidly prototyped or scalably manufactured and deployed at commercial scale with minimal time, equipment, and training requirements. We present an analysis of continuous pressure-driven flow in porous paper-based microfluidic channels and demonstrate broad applicability of this method in performing a variety of different liquid handling applications, including measuring red blood cell deformability and performing continuous free-flow DNA electrophoresis. This new platform offers a budget-friendly method for performing microfluidic operations for both academic prototyping and large-scale commercial device production.
Kaliński KJ, Galewski MA, Mazur MR, and Stawicka-Morawska N
Materials (Basel, Switzerland) [Materials (Basel)] 2021 Nov 01; Vol. 14 (21). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Nov 01.
The paper presents an original method concerning the problem of vibration reduction in the general case while milling large-size and geometrically complex details with the use of an innovative approach to the selection of spindle speed. A computational model is obtained by applying the so-called operational approach to identify the parameters of the workpiece modal model. Thanks to the experimental modal analysis results, modal subsystem identification was performed and reliable process data for simulation studies were obtained. Next, simulations of the milling process, for successive values of the spindle speed, are repeated until the best vibration state of the workpiece is obtained. For this purpose, the root mean square values of the time plots of vibration displacements are examined. The effectiveness of the approach proposed for reducing vibrations in the process of face milling is verified on the basis of the results of appropriate experimental investigations. The economic profitability of the implementation of the operational technique in the production practice of enterprises dealing with mechanical processing is demonstrated as well.
Soft robotics [Soft Robot] 2022 Jan 07. Date of Electronic Publication: 2022 Jan 07.
Designs of soft actuators are mostly guided and limited to certain target functionalities. This article presents a novel programmable design for soft pneumatic bellows-shaped actuators with distinct motions, thus a wide range of functionalities can be engendered through tuning channel parameters. According to the design principle, a kinematic model is established for motion prediction, and a sampling-based optimal parameter search is executed for automatic design. The proposed design method and kinematic models provide a tool for the generation of an optimal channel curve, with respect to target functions and required motion trajectories. Quantitative characterizations on the analytical model are conducted. To validate the functionalities, we generate three types of actuators to cover a wide range of motions in manipulation and locomotion tasks. Comparisons of model prediction on motion trajectory and prototype performance indicate the efficacy of the forward kinematics, and two task-based optimal designs for manipulation scenarios validate the effectiveness of the design parameter search. Prototyped by additive manufacturing technique with soft matter, multifunctional robots in case studies have been demonstrated, suggesting adaptability of the structure and convenience of the soft actuator's automatic design in both manipulation and locomotion. Results show that the novel design method together with the kinematic model paves a way for designing function-oriented actuators in an automatic flow.