design, utopia, alteration, prototyping, progetto, and alterazione
The purpose of this paper is to re-explore the relationship between utopia and architecture, trying first and foremost to challenge the way utopia has been conceived by architectural thought: i.e., as the prefiguration of a future seen as an ‘otherness’ distinct from the present, as far as the totality of its spatial, social, and political dimensions are concerned. Such vision – as we will argue – turns out to be deeply linked to a design logic of ‘projection’ and ‘prescription’; this, however, is not the only possible logic of design. Through a reflection upon some contemporary architectural practices, we will try to highlight a new horizon for design action, in which even utopia abandons its traditional ‘projective’ role and takes on a new meaning: rather than being the non-place of a possible future, utopia stands for what doesn’t have place in the present but can emerge from its alteration. Such notion of utopia as a form of ‘situated critique’, in a concrete space and time, helps to dig more deeply into the political potential of many contemporary forms of architectural and urban design. Il proposito di questo contributo è tornare a esplorare la relazione tra utopia e architettura, cercando innanzitutto di mettere in questione il modo in cui l’utopia è stata concepita tradizionalmente nel pensiero architettonico: vale a dire, come la prefigurazione di un futuro concepito come alterità rispetto al presente, nella totalità delle sue dimensioni spaziali, sociali e politiche. Tale visione - come si cercherà di illustrare - è intimamente legata a una certa logica “proiettiva” e “prescrittiva” che, tuttavia, non è l’unica logica possibile del progetto. Attraverso una riflessione su alcuni modi del progetto di architettura contemporaneo, si cercherà infatti di mettere in evidenza una nuova logica progettuale, in cui anche l’utopia abbandona il suo carattere proiettivo tradizionale per acquisire un nuovo senso: non più il non-luogo di un futuro possibile, bensì ciò che non ha luogo nel presente e che può tuttavia emergere dalla sua alterazione. Questa nozione di utopia come “critica situata” concretamente in uno spazio e in un tempo aiuta a comprendere più in profondità il potenziale politico di molte delle forme contemporanee di progetto architettonico e urbano.
ACS synthetic biology [ACS Synth Biol] 2021 May 20. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 May 20.
Cyanobacteria are promising microbial hosts for the production of diverse biofuels and biochemicals. However, compared to other model microbial hosts such as Escherichia coli and yeast, it takes a long time to genetically modify cyanobacteria. One way to efficiently engineer cyanobacteria while minimizing genetic engineering would be to develop a fast, high-throughput prototyping tool for cyanobacteria. In this study, we developed a CRISPR/Cas12a-based assay coupled with cyanobacteria cell-free systems to rapidly prototype promoter characteristics. Using this newly developed assay, we demonstrated cyanobacteria cell-free transcription for the first time and confirmed a positive correlation between the in vitro and in vivo transcription performance. Furthermore, we generated a synthetic promoter library and evaluated the characteristics of promoter subregions by using the assay. Varied promoter strength derived from random mutations were rapidly and effectively measured in a high-throughput way. We believe that this study offers an easily applicable and rapid prototyping platform to characterize promoters for cyanobacterial engineering.
Polymers [Polymers (Basel)] 2021 Apr 30; Vol. 13 (9). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Apr 30.
The main objective of the study was to design a pneumatic directional control valve for controlling pneumatic drives and produce it using a rapid prototyping technique. As the basic design assumption was to achieve high performance through a high flow rate and a low pressure drop, it was necessary to determine two flow parameters: the sonic conductance and the critical pressure ratio. The flow rate of compressed air and the diameters of the pneumatic conduits and fittings are important as they affect the rate of travel of the pneumatic cylinder piston. The 3D solid model of the directional control valve, developed in a CAD program, was used to simulate and optimize the flow rate. The analysis was performed by means of ANSYS CFX, a computational flow dynamics program. The main elements of the valve, i.e., the spool and the body, were produced using the PolyJet Matrix technology. The prototype was tested experimentally to determine the nominal flow-rate, calculate the flow parameters in accordance with the ISO 6358-1989 standard and compare them with the CFD simulation data. The simulation results showed very good agreement with the measurement data. The CFD analysis of the 3D solid model enabled us to optimize the flow of compressed air through the valve. The rapid prototyping method was found to be suitable to produce a fully functional directional control valve, which was confirmed through measurements at a test stand. The attempt to combine rapid prototyping used to fabricate pneumatic directional control valves with CFD used to simulate their operation was successful. The study shows that it is possible to design and construct a fully functional directional control valve characterized by high efficiency, high performance and a small pressure loss in a very short time and at a very low cost, which makes rapid prototyping superior to conventional methods of prototype making.
Kondaveeti, Hari Kishan, Kumaravelu, Nandeesh Kumar, Vanambathina, Sunny Dayal, Mathe, Sudha Ellison, and Vappangi, Suseela
Computer Science Review. May, 2021, Vol. 40
Keywords Raspberry Pi; BeagleBone; Sharks Cove; Waspmote Abstract Arduino, an open-source electronics platform, has become the go-to option for anyone working on interactive hardware and software projects. An Arduino board (such as the Uno) connected to a breadboard with plugins such as inputs, sensors, lights, and displays can be controlled by a code written in the Arduino development environment. How to achieve this is by prototyping with Arduino. Prototyping with Arduino has grown in popularity with the increased use of the Arduino platform. Prototyping with Arduino, however, is not an easy task for nonprogrammers with interest in the field. With increased public interest in the field will come a need for accessible information. This paper presents a methodical literature review intended to intensively analyze and compare existing primary studies on prototyping with Arduino. We found about 130 of such studies, all peer-reviewed and published within the last 15 years, including these years (2015--2020). These studies were tediously and carefully chosen through a three-step process. In this paper, a cautious analysis of selected studies was followed by a clear description of the methods applied. The methods were categorized according to the success rate of the studied prototypes. Results obtained can be used in researches on the best technique to adopt while prototyping with Arduino. They can also be used in electronics researches and by individuals who wish to obtain a guide on prototyping with Arduino despite lacking grounded knowledge of the subject matter. Author Affiliation: (a) School of Computer Science & Engineering, VIT-AP University, Beside AP Secretariat, Near Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India (b) School of Electronics Engineering, VIT-AP University, Beside AP Secretariat, Near Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India * Corresponding author. Article History: Received 22 September 2020; Accepted 13 January 2021 Byline: Hari Kishan Kondaveeti [email@example.com] (a,*), Nandeesh Kumar Kumaravelu (b), Sunny Dayal Vanambathina (b), Sudha Ellison Mathe (b), Suseela Vappangi (b)
Terahertz technology has greatly benefited from the recent development and generalization of prototyping technologies such as 3D printing and laser machining. These techniques can be used to rapidly fabricate optical devices for applications in sensing, imaging and communications. In this paper, we introduce hot stamping, a simple inexpensive and rapid technique to form 2D metallic patterns that are suitable for many terahertz devices. We fabricate several example devices to illustrate the versatility of the technique, including metasurfaces made of arrays of split-ring resonators with resonances up to 550 GHz. We also fabricate a wire-grid polarizer for use as a polarizing beam splitter. The simplicity and low cost of this technique can help in rapid prototyping and realization of future terahertz devices.
Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Bioinspir Biomim] 2021 Jun 08. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Jun 08.
In the field of soft robotics, pneumatic elements play an important role due to their sensi-tive and adaptive behavior. Nevertheless, the rapid prototyping of such actuators is still challenging since conventional 3D printers are not designed to fabricate airtight objects or to specify their bending behavior by combining materials of different stiffness. In order to address this challenge, a tool changing multi-material 3D printer has been constructed, which can be equipped with various print-heads fitted to the specific application. By alternately processing filaments with varying mechanical properties, a series of pneumatic elements was produced. The actuators were printed in thermoplastic polyurethane with shore hardness A70 for flexible parts and D65 for stiff parts. A novel procedure for the feature adaptation of the flow rate allowed the fabrication of vertically printed flexible membranes with a thickness of just 500 µm. This way the bending and expanding printed structures can all be actuated with a pressure of 100 kPa or less. Furthermore, a new kind of generic actuator that is customizable to specific tasks and can perform complex motion behavior was designed. All together, these actuators demonstrate the high potential of the developed platform for further research on and production of soft robotic elements and complex pressurized systems. (Creative Commons Attribution license.)