Advanced additive techniques are now being developed to fabricate scaffolds with controlled architecture for tissue engineering. These techniques combine computer-aided design (CAD) with computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) tools to produce three-dimensional structures layer by layer in a multitude of materials. Actual prediction of the effective mechanical properties of scaffolds produced by additive technologies, is very important for tissue engineering applications. A novel computer based technique for scaffold design is topological optimisation. Topological optimisation is a form of "shape" optimisation, usually referred to as "layout" optimisation. The goal of topological optimisation is to find the best use of material for a body that is subjected to either a single load or a multiple load distribution. This paper proposes a topological optimisation scheme in order to obtain the ideal topological architectures of scaffolds, maximising its mechanical behaviour. (2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.)
Unlabelled: During the past few years, the combination of medical imaging and rapid manufacturing technique has proven to be a very important development. On the other hand, the conventional method has some drawbacks. For example, it takes longer time to complete an operation and it also presents some difficulty in matching the repaired contours. With advanced software and hardware, an image of an undamaged bone similar to that of the patient can be made from computerised tomography (CT); and a physical object constructed by the mirror-processed image data can be quickly fabricated with a high degree of fitting with the patient's bone. This paper presents a methodology for the design and fabrication of an individual titanium tray for the repair of mandible defects. Methods for the tray modeling using CAD system are presented: A 3D model of the bony defect is generated after the acquisition of helical CT data. An individual tray is designed using freeform surfaces geometries and fabricated by rapid prototyping (RP) technology. The results of tray filling with bone-grafting materials are then presented. Result: the tray is inserted into the patient mandible segment. The symmetry and reconstruction quality contour of the repaired mandible was satisfactory. Thus, the patient is able to eat normally. The bone-grafting material harvested from the anterior ilium was low. The clinical experience showed that rapid prototyping and reverse engineering software are effective methods of fabricating custom trays for mandibular reconstruction after bone loss due to a tumor.