Sun X, Rickard WDA, Sparkes BM, White BR, Offer RF, Luiten AN, and Ironside CN
Optics express [Opt Express] 2021 Nov 08; Vol. 29 (23), pp. 37733-37746.
We have developed a rapid prototyping approach for creating custom grating magneto-optical traps using a dual-beam system combining a focused ion beam and a scanning electron microscope. With this approach we have created both one- and two-dimensional gratings of up to 400 µm × 400 µm in size with structure features down to 100 nm, periods of 620 nm, adjustable aspect ratios (ridge width : depth ∼ 1 : 0.3 to 1 : 1.4) and sidewall angles up to 71°. The depth and period of these gratings make them suitable for holographic trapping and cooling of neutral ytterbium on the 1 S 0 → 1 P 1 399 nm transition. Optical testing of the gratings at this wavelength has demonstrated a total first order diffraction of 90% of the reflected light. This work therefore represents a fast, high resolution, programmable and maskless alternative to current photo and electron beam lithography-based procedures and provides a time efficient process for prototyping of small period, high aspect ratio grating magneto-optical traps and other high resolution structures.
Krishnasamy S, Mokhtar RAR, Singh R, Sivallingam S, Aziz YFA, and Mathaneswaran V
Brazilian journal of cardiovascular surgery [Braz J Cardiovasc Surg] 2021 Oct 17; Vol. 36 (5), pp. 707-716. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Oct 17.
Introduction: Rapid prototyping is a process by which three-dimensional (3D) computerized surface models are converted into physical models. In this study, a 3D heart bio model was created using the rapid prototyping method and the accuracy of this heart model was assessed by clinicians. Methods: The two-dimensional images of normal heart from gated computed tomography scan datasets were used to create a 3D model of the heart. The slices were then processed using the software BioModroid and printed with the 3D printer. The evaluation of the model was performed by a questionnaire answered by four cardiothoracic surgeons, 12 cardiologists, five radiologists, and nine surgical registrars. Results: Eighty-six percent of the anatomy structures showed in this model scored 100% accuracy. Structures such as circumflex branch of left coronary artery, great cardiac vein, papillary muscle, and coronary sinus were each rated 77%, 70%, 70%, and 57% accurate. Among 30 clinicians, a total of 93% rated the model accuracy as good and above; 64% of the clinicians evaluated this model as an excellent teaching tool for anatomy class. As a visual aid for surgery or interventional procedures, the model was rated excellent (40%), good (50%), average (23%), and poor (3%); 70% of the clinicians scored the model as above average for training purpose. Overall, this 3D rapid prototyping cardiac model was rated as excellent (33%), good (50%), and average (17%). Conclusion: This 3D rapid prototyping heart model will be a valuable source of anatomical education and cardiac interventional management.