PROTEIN synthesis, RAPID prototyping, MICROBIAL cells, ENGINEERING design, BIOSYNTHESIS, and ESCHERICHIA coli
Metabolic engineering of microorganisms to produce sustainable chemicals has emerged as an important part of the global bioeconomy. Unfortunately, efforts to design and engineer microbial cell factories are challenging because design-build-test cycles, iterations of re-engineering organisms to test and optimize new sets of enzymes, are slow. To alleviate this challenge, we demonstrate a cell-free approach termed in vitro Prototyping and Rapid Optimization of Biosynthetic Enzymes (or iPROBE). In iPROBE, a large number of pathway combinations can be rapidly built and optimized. The key idea is to use cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) to manufacture pathway enzymes in separate reactions that are then mixed to modularly assemble multiple, distinct biosynthetic pathways. As a model, we apply our approach to the 9-step heterologous enzyme pathway to limonene in extracts from Escherichia coli. In iterative cycles of design, we studied the impact of 54 enzyme homologs, multiple enzyme levels, and cofactor concentrations on pathway performance. In total, we screened over 150 unique sets of enzymes in 580 unique pathway conditions to increase limonene production in 24 h from 0.2 to 4.5 mM (23–610 mg/L). Finally, to demonstrate the modularity of this pathway, we also synthesized the biofuel precursors pinene and bisabolene. We anticipate that iPROBE will accelerate design-build-test cycles for metabolic engineering, enabling data-driven multiplexed cell-free methods for testing large combinations of biosynthetic enzymes to inform cellular design. Image 1 • Applied the iPROBE framework to build the nine-enzyme pathway to produce limonene. • Assessed the impact of cofactors and 54 enzyme homologs on enzyme performance. • Iteratively optimized cell-free limonene production exploring 580 unique reactions. • Extended pathway to biofuel precursors pinene and bisabolene. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
design, utopia, alteration, prototyping, progetto, and alterazione
The purpose of this paper is to re-explore the relationship between utopia and architecture, trying first and foremost to challenge the way utopia has been conceived by architectural thought: i.e., as the prefiguration of a future seen as an ‘otherness’ distinct from the present, as far as the totality of its spatial, social, and political dimensions are concerned. Such vision – as we will argue – turns out to be deeply linked to a design logic of ‘projection’ and ‘prescription’; this, however, is not the only possible logic of design. Through a reflection upon some contemporary architectural practices, we will try to highlight a new horizon for design action, in which even utopia abandons its traditional ‘projective’ role and takes on a new meaning: rather than being the non-place of a possible future, utopia stands for what doesn’t have place in the present but can emerge from its alteration. Such notion of utopia as a form of ‘situated critique’, in a concrete space and time, helps to dig more deeply into the political potential of many contemporary forms of architectural and urban design. Il proposito di questo contributo è tornare a esplorare la relazione tra utopia e architettura, cercando innanzitutto di mettere in questione il modo in cui l’utopia è stata concepita tradizionalmente nel pensiero architettonico: vale a dire, come la prefigurazione di un futuro concepito come alterità rispetto al presente, nella totalità delle sue dimensioni spaziali, sociali e politiche. Tale visione - come si cercherà di illustrare - è intimamente legata a una certa logica “proiettiva” e “prescrittiva” che, tuttavia, non è l’unica logica possibile del progetto. Attraverso una riflessione su alcuni modi del progetto di architettura contemporaneo, si cercherà infatti di mettere in evidenza una nuova logica progettuale, in cui anche l’utopia abbandona il suo carattere proiettivo tradizionale per acquisire un nuovo senso: non più il non-luogo di un futuro possibile, bensì ciò che non ha luogo nel presente e che può tuttavia emergere dalla sua alterazione. Questa nozione di utopia come “critica situata” concretamente in uno spazio e in un tempo aiuta a comprendere più in profondità il potenziale politico di molte delle forme contemporanee di progetto architettonico e urbano.
RAPID prototyping, LASER welding, POLYMERS, DEGREES of freedom, and MICROMACHINING
We report on a novel rapid prototyping approach for the manufacturing of highly individualized lab-on-chip (LoC) cartridges from generic polymer parts by laser micromachining and laser welding. The approach allows an immediate implementation of microfluidic networks, components, and functionalities into an existing LoC platform without the need for an expensive and time-consuming fabrication of production tools like molds or masks. We comprehensively describe the individual process steps of the rapid prototyping procedure including a wet-chemical treatment for an easy and effective surface polishing of laser micromachined polymer parts. For laying out, we introduce a generalized diagrammatic description of microfluidic functional units in order to design application-specific cartridges for molecular diagnostic workflows. We demonstrate the usability of our prototyped cartridges by performing microfluidic experiments within. Due to the use of generic polymer parts, our rapid prototyping approach combines a high degree of freedom with an intrinsic compatibility to an established and highly developed LoC system. By enabling an experimental testing within one day, the rapid prototyping procedure shortens development cycles and boosts the evolution of microfluidic networks as well as the implementation of novel microfluidic components and functionalities. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
An effective development platform for custom lab-on-a-chip and lab-on-a-foil solutions has been regarded as a missing element for wider adoption of microfluidic technologies in everyday life. We have used a direct laser structuring device combined with CAD-CAM software and have developed an efficient, fast, and precise procedure for rapid prototyping of widely accessible contemporary materials utilized for flexible microfluidics. Utilization of an ultra-short pulsed laser has enabled us to predict and control the laser ablation process on thin low-temperature co-fired ceramics and Kapton foil. We have demonstrated an agreement between the theoretic predictions and experimental data on ablation rates, paving the way to a fully predictive manufacturing process. Our procedure enables an independent control of microfluidic channel shape, depth, and lateral dimensions down to 10 µm, while maintaining an exceptional process quality achieved by a parametrically optimized laser output at single-picosecond pulse durations. Our novel rapid prototyping solution features short turnover times, minimum material waste, no chemical procedures, and a single-step process free of heat-effects. We demonstrate the improvements to the structuring process on a known difficult-to-manufacture herringbone mixer structures inside a micro-mixer chip application. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, CONCEPTUAL art, METHODOLOGY, ARTS, WORKS of art in art, and TECHNOLOGY
Open prototyping is presented as a conceptual and methodological framework for artistic practice and public participation that bridges the space between technology and society and contributes to city and technology innovation. Such practices can make ideas about the future tangible and realize different configurations of infrastructures, data, situations and people. Many works here are boundary objects, taking place in grey zones between disciplines and sectors. The article may thus deepen understanding at the fault lines between art and innovation and ways in which art can shape the direction of technology development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This article presents a novel sensor for detecting and measuring angular rotation and proximity, intended for rapid prototyping machines. The sensor is based on a complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) driven by a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide (CBCPW). The sensor has a planar topology, which makes it simple and cost-effective to produce and accurate in measuring both physical quantities. The sensor has two components, a rotor and a stator: the first of these (the CSRR) can rotate around its axis and translate along the plane normal to the ground of the CBCPW. A detailed theoretical and numerical analysis, along with a circuit model, of the unique sensor design is presented. The proposed sensor exhibits linear response for measuring angular rotation and proximity in the range of 30°–60° and 0–200 μm, respectively. Another distinctive feature of the rotation and proximity sensor is the wide frequency band of applicability, which is an integral part of its novel design and is implemented through various dielectric material loadings on the CSRR. In the prototype of the proposed device, the stator (CBCPW) is fabricated on a 0.508-mm-thick RF-35 substrate, whereas the CSRR-based rotor is fabricated on TLY-5 and RF-35 substrates. The angular rotation, proximity, operating band selection, and sensitivity are measured using a vector network analyzer and are found to be good matches to the simulated and theoretical results. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Information Systems Education. Summer, 2020, Vol. 31 Issue 3, p179, 8 p.
Teaching -- Usage, Teaching -- Methods, and Teaching -- Study and teaching
1. INTRODUCTION With computing devices peppering nearly every aspect of our lives, how people interact with these technologies is critically important to all computing fields. In fact, failure to properly [...] Given the ubiquity of interfaces on computing devices, it is essential for future Information Systems (IS) professionals to understand the ramifications of good user interface (UI) design. This article provides instructions on how to efficiently and effectively teach IS students about 'fit,' a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) concept, through a paper prototyping activity. Although easy to explain, the concept of 'fit' can be difficult to understand without repeated practice. Practically, designing 'fit' into UIs can be cost-prohibitive because working prototypes are often beyond students' technical skillset. Accordingly, based on principles of active learning, we show how to use paper prototyping to demonstrate 'fit' in a hands-on class exercise. We provide detailed stepby-step instructions to plan, setup, and present the exercise to guide students through the process of 'fit' in UI design. As a result of this activity, students are better able to employ both theoretical and practical applications of 'fit' in UI design and implementation. This exercise is applicable in any course that includes UI design, such as principles of HCI, systems analysis and design, software engineering, and project management. Keywords: Human-computer interaction (HCI), Paper prototyping, Active learning, Constructionism, Teaching tip
RAPID prototyping, CHEMICAL engineering, INTEGRATED software, CHEMICAL processes, COMPUTER software, INDUSTRIAL applications, and DYNAMIC simulation
With ongoing digitalization, fast simulation of process dynamics offers new opportunities for model‐based control schemes. This is eased by the availability of high‐level, open‐access, easy‐to‐use software able to simulate and optimize chemical processes, making rapid prototyping possible also for the chemical engineer. In this study, the capabilities of the Python‐based open‐source software package Pyomo towards industrial application is illustrated in modeling and comparing different control schemes for a simple Williams‐Otto process. It is shown how to simulate the process dynamics and how to compute optimal control trajectories for minimizing waste and maximizing yield. Two approaches to setpoint tracking are compared: one based on proportional‐integral feedback control and one based on optimal open‐loop control. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Robinson, Christopher J., Carbonell, Pablo, Jervis, Adrian J., Yan, Cunyu, Hollywood, Katherine A., Dunstan, Mark S., Currin, Andrew, Swainston, Neil, Spiess, Reynard, Taylor, Sandra, Mulherin, Paul, Parker, Steven, Rowe, William, Matthews, Nicholas E., Malone, Kirk J., Le Feuvre, Rosalind, Shapira, Philip, Barran, Perdita, Turner, Nicholas J., and Micklefield, Jason
RAPID prototyping, MONOMERS, MANUFACTURING processes, and SYNTHETIC biology
Bio-based production of industrial chemicals using synthetic biology can provide alternative green routes from renewable resources, allowing for cleaner production processes. To efficiently produce chemicals on-demand through microbial strain engineering, biomanufacturing foundries have developed automated pipelines that are largely compound agnostic in their time to delivery. Here we benchmark the capabilities of a biomanufacturing pipeline to enable rapid prototyping of microbial cell factories for the production of chemically diverse industrially relevant material building blocks. Over 85 days the pipeline was able to produce 17 potential material monomers and key intermediates by combining 160 genetic parts into 115 unique biosynthetic pathways. To explore the scale-up potential of our prototype production strains, we optimized the enantioselective production of mandelic acid and hydroxymandelic acid, achieving gram-scale production in fed-batch fermenters. The high success rate in the rapid design and prototyping of microbially-produced material building blocks reveals the potential role of biofoundries in leading the transition to sustainable materials production. Image 1 • An automated biomanufacturing pipeline is benchmarked for the production of material monomers. • Over 85 days, 160 genes were screened for activity, assembled into 115 unique pathways and tested for in vivo production. • E. coli production strains were successfully constructed to produce 17 target compounds at competitive titers. • Scale-up potential is demonstrated through enantioselective production of mandelic acid targets at gram-scale in bioreactors. • The high success rate demonstrates the capabilities of biofoundries to rapidly prototype microbial production strains. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This paper presents a new control algorithm development approach for induction machines by using model-based design and a systematically built model architecture implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. The model architecture follows a three-layer structure, and it is developed according to the principle of functional decomposition and the needs of reusability and expandability. The first model layer consists of elementary model and algorithm components, the second contains a machine simulation model and a field-oriented control (FOC) algorithm, built upon the first layer's components, and the third realises the executable models by connecting the models and algorithms defined in the second layer. Furthermore, rapid control prototyping (RCP) is discussed as an experimental validation method, and an experimental setup with RCP is also introduced. The application of the presented methods is demonstrated by simulations as well as by experiments, and by using a control algorithm based on FOC as an example. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This research work has been completed by concentrating on the structure of inserts for foot orthosis fabricated by utilizing rapid prototyping technology. Thermoplastic elastomer and thermoplastic polyurethane are the most commonly used materials that are being used in customized three-dimensional printed orthotic insoles, which are comfortable and prevent the user in many foot disorders. Thermo-softening viscoelastic polymers, explicitly Filaflex and Ninjaflex, have been printed by utilizing Flash Forge three-dimensional printers to evaluate the mechanical properties of specimens with alterations of the percentage rate fill-up design replicas. The results are compared on the basis of hardness test, flexural/bending test, and tensile test using Durometer and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). It has also been observed that the most significant effecting factor is infill density. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Keywords Convolutional neural network; Hardware acceleration; Rapid system prototyping; Binarization; FPGA Abstract The huge model size and high computational complexity make emerging convolutional neural network (CNN) models unsuitable to deploy on current embedded or edge computing devices. Recently the binary neural network (BNN) is explored to help reduce network model size and avoid complex multiplication. In this paper, a binary network acceleration framework for rapid system prototyping is proposed to promote the deployment of CNNs on embedded devices. Firstly trainable scaling factors are adopted in binary network training to improve network accuracy performance. The hardware/software co-design framework supports various compact network structures such as residual block, 1 x 1 squeeze convolution layer, and depthwise separable convolution. With flexible network binarization and efficient hardware architecture optimization, the acceleration system is able to achieve over 2 TOPS throughput performance comparable to modern desktop GPU with much higher power efficiency. Author Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China * Corresponding author. Article History: Received 2 December 2019; Revised 19 February 2020; Accepted 8 March 2020 Byline: Zhe Xu [email@example.com], Ray C.C. Cheung [firstname.lastname@example.org] (*)
Bryden, Douglas (Designer), author. and Bryden, Douglas (Designer), author.
Industrial design -- Computer-aided design -- Case studies., Product design -- Computer-aided design -- Case studies., Computer-aided design., Rapid prototyping., Industrial design -- Data processing -- Case studies., Industrial design -- Data processing., and Case studies.
Computer-aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP) are now a fundamental part of the professional practice of product design and are therefore essential skills for product design undergraduate students. This book provides students with all the tools needed to get to grips with the range of both CAD software and RP processes used in the industry.