Ceramic materials are chemical- and temperature-resistant and, therefore, enable novel application fields ranging from automotive to aerospace. With this in mind, this contribution focuses on developing an additive manufacturing approach for 3D-printed waveguides made of ceramic materials. In particular, a special design approach for ceramic waveguides, which introduces non-radiating slots into the waveguides sidewalls, and a customized metallization process, are presented. The developed process allows for using conventional stereolithographic desktop-grade 3D-printers. The proposed approach has, therefore, benefits such as low-cost fabrication, moderate handling effort and independence of the concrete waveguide geometry. The performance of a manufactured ceramic WR12 waveguide is compared to a commercial waveguide and a conventionally printed counterpart. For that reason, relevant properties, such as surface roughness and waveguide geometry, are characterized. Parsing the electrical measurements, the ceramic waveguide specimen features an attenuation coefficient of 30–60 dB/m within the E-Band. The measured attenuation coefficient is 200% and 300% higher compared to the epoxy resin and the commercial waveguide and is attributed to the increased surface roughness of the ceramic substrate.
The paper presents some possible applications started from a six revolute joints (6R) overconstrained mechanism. The spatial devices obtained are based on the 6R Wohlhart symmetric mechanism in a special spatial position, with three non-adjacent joints constrained to remain in a fixed plane. This special spatial disposition allows us to obtain some reconfigurable/foldable devices, with an estimated application in the automotive industry field.
Isad Saric, Enis Muratovic, Adil Muminovic, Adis J. Muminovic, Mirsad Colic, Muamer Delic, Nedim Pervan, and Elmedin Mesic
Applied Sciences, Vol 12, Iss 353, p 353 (2022)
integrated intelligent CAD system, springs, parametric 3D modelling, FEM analysis, prototyping, C#, Technology, Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General), TA1-2040, Biology (General), QH301-705.5, Physics, QC1-999, Chemistry, and QD1-999
This paper presents the development and implementation of integrated intelligent CAD (computer aided design) system for design, analysis and prototyping of the compression and torsion springs. The article shows a structure of the developed system named Springs IICAD (integrated intelligent computer aided design). The system bounds synthesis and analysis design phases by means of the utilization of parametric 3D (three-dimensional) modeling, FEM (finite element method) analysis and prototyping. The development of the module for spring calculation and system integration was performed in the C# (C Sharp) programming language. Three-dimensional geometric modeling and structural analysis were performed in the CATIA (computer aided three-dimensional interactive application) software, while prototyping is performed with the Ultimaker 3.0 3D printer with support of Cura software. The developed Springs IICAD system interlinks computation module with the basic parametric models in such a way that spring calculation, shaping, FEM analysis and prototype preparation are performed instantly.
Rapid prototyping has become increasingly popular over the past years. However, its application is heavily confined to a part size that fits the small build volume of additive machines. This paper presents a universal design method to overcome this limitation while preserving the economic advantages of rapid prototyping over conventional processes. It segments large, thin-walled parts and joins the segments. The method aims to produce an assembly with minimal loss to the performance and characteristics of a solid part. Based on a set of requirements, a universal segmentation approach and a novel hybrid joint design combining adhesive bonding and press fitting are developed. This design allows for the force transmission, positioning, and assembly of the segments adaptive to their individual geometry. The method is tailored to fused deposition modeling (FDM) by minimizing the need for support structures and actively compensating for manufacturing tolerances. While a universal application cannot be guaranteed, the adaptive design was proven for a variety of complex geometries. Using automotive trim parts as an example, the usability, benefits, and novelty of the design method is presented. The method itself shows a high potential to overcome the build volume limitation for thin-walled parts in an economic manner.
Nectarios Vidakis, Markos Petousis, Athena Maniadi, and Emmanuel Arapis
Electronics, Vol 11, Iss 12, p 12 (2022)
sculpture, arduino, marble, design, carving tool, prototyping, Electronics, and TK7800-8360
The art of sculpting is related to the processing of brittle materials, such as granite, marble, and stone, and is implemented using percussive hand tools or rotational roughing tools. The outcome of percussion carving is still directly related to the technique, experience, and capacity of the sculptor. Any attempt to automate the art of sculpturing is exhausted in the subtraction method of brittle materials using a rotating tool. In the process of percussion carving, there is no equivalent expertise. In this work, we present the design, manufacturing (3D printing and CNC machining), and use of a smart, percussion carving tool, either manually by the hand of a sculptor, adjusted in a percussive pneumatic hammer, or guided by a digitally driven machine. The scope is to measure and record the technological variables and sizes that describe and document the carving process through the sensors and electronic devices that the smart tool incorporates, the development and programming of which was implemented for the purposes of this work. The smart carving tool was meticulously tested in various carving stones and stressing scenarios to test the functionality and efficacy of the tool. All the tests were successfully implemented according to the specifications set.
Song-Pei Ye, Yi-Hua Liu, Chun-Yu Liu, Kun-Che Ho, and Yi-Feng Luo
Electronics, Vol 11, Iss 43, p 43 (2022)
neural network, variable step size, maximum power point tracking, incremental conductance method, Electronics, and TK7800-8360
In conventional adaptive variable step size (VSS) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, a scaling factor is utilized to determine the required perturbation step. However, the performance of the adaptive VSS MPPT algorithm is essentially decided by the choice of scaling factor. In this paper, a neural network assisted variable step size (VSS) incremental conductance (IncCond) MPPT method is proposed. The proposed method utilizes a neural network to obtain an optimal scaling factor that should be used in current irradiance level for the VSS IncCond MPPT method. Only two operating points on the characteristic curve are needed to acquire the optimal scaling factor. Hence, expensive irradiance and temperature sensors are not required. By adopting a proper scaling factor, the performance of the conventional VSS IncCond method can be improved, especially under rapid varying irradiance conditions. To validate the studied algorithm, a 400 W prototyping circuit is built and experiments are carried out accordingly. Comparing with perturb and observe (P&O), α-P&O, golden section and conventional VSS IncCond MPPT methods, the proposed method can improve the tracking loss by 95.58%, 42.51%, 93.66%, and 66.14% under EN50530 testing condition, respectively.
Inês Miranda, Andrews Souza, Paulo Sousa, João Ribeiro, Elisabete M. S. Castanheira, Rui Lima, and Graça Minas
Journal of Functional Biomaterials, Vol 13, Iss 2, p 2 (2022)
polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS properties, PDMS applications, microfluidics, biomedical engineering, Biotechnology, TP248.13-248.65, Medicine (General), and R5-920
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an elastomer with excellent optical, electrical and mechanical properties, which makes it well-suited for several engineering applications. Due to its biocompatibility, PDMS is widely used for biomedical purposes. This widespread use has also led to the massification of the soft-lithography technique, introduced for facilitating the rapid prototyping of micro and nanostructures using elastomeric materials, most notably PDMS. This technique has allowed advances in microfluidic, electronic and biomedical fields. In this review, an overview of the properties of PDMS and some of its commonly used treatments, aiming at the suitability to those fields’ needs, are presented. Applications such as microchips in the biomedical field, replication of cardiovascular flow and medical implants are also reviewed.
Antonella Sola, Yilin Sai, Adrian Trinchi, Clement Chu, Shirley Shen, and Shiping Chen
Materials, Vol 15, Iss 85, p 85 (2022)
additive manufacturing, 3D printing, tag, traceability, provenance, anti-counterfeiting, Technology, Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering, TK1-9971, Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General), TA1-2040, Microscopy, QH201-278.5, Descriptive and experimental mechanics, and QC120-168.85
Additive manufacturing (AM) is rapidly evolving from “rapid prototyping” to “industrial production”. AM enables the fabrication of bespoke components with complicated geometries in the high-performance areas of aerospace, defence and biomedicine. Providing AM parts with a tagging feature that allows them to be identified like a fingerprint can be crucial for logistics, certification and anti-counterfeiting purposes. Whereas the implementation of an overarching strategy for the complete traceability of AM components downstream from designer to end user is, by nature, a cross-disciplinary task that involves legal, digital and technological issues, materials engineers are on the front line of research to understand what kind of tag is preferred for each kind of object and how existing materials and 3D printing hardware should be synergistically modified to create such tag. This review provides a critical analysis of the main requirements and properties of tagging features for authentication and identification of AM parts, of the strategies that have been put in place so far, and of the future challenges that are emerging to make these systems efficient and suitable for digitalisation. It is envisaged that this literature survey will help scientists and developers answer the challenging question: “How can we embed a tagging feature in an AM part?”.
The strategy of embedding conductive materials on polymeric matrices has produced functional and wearable artificial electronic skin prototypes capable of transduction signals, such as pressure, force, humidity, or temperature. However, these prototypes are expensive and cover small areas. This study proposes a more affordable manufacturing strategy for manufacturing conductive layers with 6 × 6 matrix micropatterns of RTV-2 silicone rubber and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT). A novel mold with two cavities and two different micropatterns was designed and tested as a proof-of-concept using Low-Force Stereolithography-based additive manufacturing (AM). The effect SWCNT concentrations (3 wt.%, 4 wt.%, and 5 wt.%) on the mechanical properties were characterized by quasi-static axial deformation tests, which allowed them to stretch up to ~160%. The elastomeric soft material’s hysteresis energy (Mullin’s effect) was fitted using the Ogden–Roxburgh model and the Nelder–Mead algorithm. The assessment showed that the resulting multilayer material exhibits high flexibility and high conductivity (surface resistivity ~7.97 × 104 Ω/sq) and that robust soft tooling can be used for other devices.
Amin Javidanbardan, Ana M. Azevedo, Virginia Chu, and João P. Conde
Micromachines, Vol 13, Iss 6, p 6 (2022)
micromachining strategies, micro/mesoscale milling, 3D microfluidic structure, PMMA, PDMS, surface quality, Mechanical engineering and machinery, and TJ1-1570
In recent years, there has been an increased interest in exploring the potential of micro-and mesoscale milling technologies for developing cost-effective microfluidic systems with high design flexibility and a rapid microfabrication process that does not require a cleanroom. Nevertheless, the number of current studies aiming to fully understand and establish the benefits of this technique in developing high-quality microsystems with simple integrability is still limited. In the first part of this study, we define a systematic and adaptable strategy for developing high-quality poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based micromilled structures. A case study of the average surface roughness (Ra) minimization of a cuboid column is presented to better illustrate some of the developed strategies. In this example, the Ra of a cuboid column was reduced from 1.68 μm to 0.223 μm by implementing milling optimization and postprocessing steps. In the second part of this paper, new strategies for developing a 3D microsystem were introduced by using a specifically designed negative PMMA master mold for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) double-casting prototyping. The reported results in this study demonstrate the robustness of the proposed approach for developing microfluidic structures with high surface quality and structural integrability in a reasonable amount of time.