Bryden, Douglas (Designer), author. and Bryden, Douglas (Designer), author.
Industrial design -- Computer-aided design -- Case studies., Product design -- Computer-aided design -- Case studies., Computer-aided design., Rapid prototyping., Industrial design -- Data processing -- Case studies., Industrial design -- Data processing., and Case studies.
Computer-aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP) are now a fundamental part of the professional practice of product design and are therefore essential skills for product design undergraduate students. This book provides students with all the tools needed to get to grips with the range of both CAD software and RP processes used in the industry.
Samotaev N, Oblov K, Dzhumaev P, Fritsch M, Mosch S, Vinnichenko M, Trofimenko N, Baumgärtner C, Fuchs FM, and Wissmeier L
Micromachines [Micromachines (Basel)] 2021 Nov 25; Vol. 12 (12). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Nov 25.
The work describes a fast and flexible micro/nano fabrication and manufacturing method for ceramic Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)sensors. Rapid prototyping techniques are demonstrated for metal oxide sensor fabrication in the form of a complete MEMS device, which could be used as a compact miniaturized surface mount devices package. Ceramic MEMS were fabricated by the laser micromilling of already pre-sintered monolithic materials. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to deposit metallization and sensor films by thick-film and thin-film methods on the manufactured ceramic product. The results of functional tests of such manufactured sensors are presented, demonstrating their full suitability for gas sensing application and indicating that the obtained parameters are at a level comparable to those of industrial produced sensors. Results of design and optimization principles of applied methods for micro- and nanosystems are discussed with regard to future, wider application in semiconductor gas sensors prototyping.
Sun X, Rickard WDA, Sparkes BM, White BR, Offer RF, Luiten AN, and Ironside CN
Optics express [Opt Express] 2021 Nov 08; Vol. 29 (23), pp. 37733-37746.
We have developed a rapid prototyping approach for creating custom grating magneto-optical traps using a dual-beam system combining a focused ion beam and a scanning electron microscope. With this approach we have created both one- and two-dimensional gratings of up to 400 µm × 400 µm in size with structure features down to 100 nm, periods of 620 nm, adjustable aspect ratios (ridge width : depth ∼ 1 : 0.3 to 1 : 1.4) and sidewall angles up to 71°. The depth and period of these gratings make them suitable for holographic trapping and cooling of neutral ytterbium on the 1 S 0 → 1 P 1 399 nm transition. Optical testing of the gratings at this wavelength has demonstrated a total first order diffraction of 90% of the reflected light. This work therefore represents a fast, high resolution, programmable and maskless alternative to current photo and electron beam lithography-based procedures and provides a time efficient process for prototyping of small period, high aspect ratio grating magneto-optical traps and other high resolution structures.
Barasti D, Troscia M, Lattuca D, Tardo A, Barsanti I, and Pagano P
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) [Sensors (Basel)] 2021 Dec 30; Vol. 22 (1). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Dec 30.
Industry, Lakes, and Software
Seaports are genuine, intermodal hubs connecting seaways to inland transport links, such as roads and railways. Seaports are located at the focal point of institutional, industrial, and control activities in a jungle of interconnected information systems. System integration is setting considerable challenges when a group of independent providers are asked to implement complementary software functionalities. For this reason, seaports are the ideal playground where software is highly composite and tailored to a large variety of final users (from the so-called port communities). Although the target would be that of shaping the Port Authorities to be providers of (digital) innovation services, the state-of-the-art is still that of considering them as final users, or proxies of them. For this reason, we show how a canonical cloud, virtualizing a distributed architecture, can be structured to host different, possibly overlapped, tenants, slicing the information system at the infrastructure, platform, and software layers. Resources at the infrastructure and platform layers are shared so that a variety of independent applications can make use of the local calculus and access the data stored in a Data Lake. Such a cloud is adopted by the Port of Livorno as a rapid prototyping framework for the development and deployment of ICT innovation services. In order to demonstrate the versatility of this framework, three case studies relating to as many prototype ICT services (Navigation Safety, e-Freight, and Logistics) released within three industrial tenants are here presented and discussed.
O'Grady BJ, Geuy MD, Kim H, Balotin KM, Allchin ER, Florian DC, Bute NN, Scott TE, Lowen GB, Fricker CM, Fitzgerald ML, Guelcher SA, Wikswo JP, Bellan LM, and Lippmann ES
Lab on a chip [Lab Chip] 2021 Dec 07; Vol. 21 (24), pp. 4814-4822. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Dec 07.
Cell Culture Techniques, Humans, Reproducibility of Results, Xylenes, Lab-On-A-Chip Devices, and Polymers
Fabrication of microfluidic devices by photolithography generally requires specialized training and access to a cleanroom. As an alternative, 3D printing enables cost-effective fabrication of microdevices with complex features that would be suitable for many biomedical applications. However, commonly used resins are cytotoxic and unsuitable for devices involving cells. Furthermore, 3D prints are generally refractory to elastomer polymerization such that they cannot be used as master molds for fabricating devices from polymers ( e.g. polydimethylsiloxane, or PDMS). Different post-print treatment strategies, such as heat curing, ultraviolet light exposure, and coating with silanes, have been explored to overcome these obstacles, but none have proven universally effective. Here, we show that deposition of a thin layer of parylene, a polymer commonly used for medical device applications, renders 3D prints biocompatible and allows them to be used as master molds for elastomeric device fabrication. When placed in culture dishes containing human neurons, regardless of resin type, uncoated 3D prints leached toxic material to yield complete cell death within 48 hours, whereas cells exhibited uniform viability and healthy morphology out to 21 days if the prints were coated with parylene. Diverse PDMS devices of different shapes and sizes were easily cast from parylene-coated 3D printed molds without any visible defects. As a proof-of-concept, we rapid prototyped and tested different types of PDMS devices, including triple chamber perfusion chips, droplet generators, and microwells. Overall, we suggest that the simplicity and reproducibility of this technique will make it attractive for fabricating traditional microdevices and rapid prototyping new designs. In particular, by minimizing user intervention on the fabrication and post-print treatment steps, our strategy could help make microfluidics more accessible to the biomedical research community.
Purpose: Due to the high perforation rate of cervical pedicle screw placement, we have designed four different types of rapid prototyping navigation templates to enhance the accuracy of cervical pedicle screw placement. Methods: Fifteen human cadaveric cervical spines from C2 to C7 were randomly divided into five groups, with three specimens in each group. The diameter of pedicle screw used in this study was 3.5 mm. Groups 1-4 were assisted by the two-level template, one-level bilateral template, one-level unilateral template and one-level point-contact template, respectively. Group 5 was without any navigation template. After the surgery, the accuracy of screw placement in the five groups was evaluated using postoperative computed tomographic scans to observe whether the screw breached the pedicle cortex. Results: A total of 180 pedicle screws were inserted without any accidents. The accuracy rate was 75%, 100%, 100%, 91.7%, and 63.9%, respectively, from Groups 1 to 5. All the template groups were significantly higher than Group 5, though the two-level navigation template group was significantly lower than the other three template groups. The operation time was 4.72 ± 0.28, 4.81 ± 0.29, 5.03 ± 0.35, 8.42 ± 0.36, and 10.05 ± 0.52 min, respectively, from Groups 1 to 5. The no template and point-contact procedures were significantly more time-consuming than the template procedures. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that four different design types of navigation templates achieved a higher accuracy in assisting cervical pedicle screw placement than no template insertion. However, the two-level template's accuracy was the lowest compared to the other three templates. Meanwhile, these templates avoided fluoroscopy during the surgery and decreased the operation time. It is always very challenging to translate cadaveric studies to clinical practice. Hence, the one-level bilateral, unilateral, and point-contact navigation templates designed by us need to be meticulously tested to verify their accuracy and safety.
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) [Sensors (Basel)] 2021 Nov 30; Vol. 21 (23). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Nov 30.
LoRaWAN has gained significant attention for Internet-of-Things (IOT) applications due to its low power consumption and long range potential for data transmission. While there is a significant body of work assessing LoRA coverage and data transmission characteristics, there is a lack of data available about commercially available LoRa prototyping boards and their power consumption, in relation to their features. It is currently difficult to estimate the power consumption of a LoRa module operating under different transmission profiles, due to a lack of manufacturer data available. In this study, power testing has been carried out on physical hardware and significant variation was found in the power consumption of competing boards, all marketed as "extremely low power". In this paper, testing results are presented alongside an experimentally-derived power model for the lowest power LoRa module, and power requirements are compared to firmware settings. The power analysis adds to existing work showing trends in data-rate and transmission power settings effects on electrical power consumption. The model's accuracy is experimentally verified and shows acceptable agreement to estimated values. Finally, applications for the model are presented by way of a hypothetical scenario and calculations performed in order to estimate battery life and energy consumption for varying data transmission intervals.
Kleinerman A, Rosenfeld A, Benrimoh D, Fratila R, Armstrong C, Mehltretter J, Shneider E, Yaniv-Rosenfeld A, Karp J, Reynolds CF, Turecki G, and Kapelner A
PloS one [PLoS One] 2021 Nov 12; Vol. 16 (11), pp. e0258400. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Nov 12 (Print Publication: 2021).
Area Under Curve, Clinical Trials as Topic, Drug Therapy, Combination methods, Humans, Precision Medicine methods, Remission Induction, Treatment Outcome, Antidepressive Agents therapeutic use, Clinical Decision-Making methods, Deep Learning, Depression drug therapy, and Depressive Disorder, Major drug therapy
Machine-assisted treatment selection commonly follows one of two paradigms: a fully personalized paradigm which ignores any possible clustering of patients; or a sub-grouping paradigm which ignores personal differences within the identified groups. While both paradigms have shown promising results, each of them suffers from important limitations. In this article, we propose a novel deep learning-based treatment selection approach that is shown to strike a balance between the two paradigms using latent-space prototyping. Our approach is specifically tailored for domains in which effective prototypes and sub-groups of patients are assumed to exist, but groupings relevant to the training objective are not observable in the non-latent space. In an extensive evaluation, using both synthetic and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) real-world clinical data describing 4754 MDD patients from clinical trials for depression treatment, we show that our approach favorably compares with state-of-the-art approaches. Specifically, the model produced an 8% absolute and 23% relative improvement over random treatment allocation. This is potentially clinically significant, given the large number of patients with MDD. Therefore, the model can bring about a much desired leap forward in the way depression is treated today.
Haller, Norm, author. and National Research Council (U.S.). Air Force Studies Board, issuing body.
Prototypes, Engineering -- Congresses., Rapid prototyping -- Congresses., and Military research -- United States -- Planning -- Congresses.
"Assessment to Enhance Air Force and Department of Defense Prototyping for the New Defense Strategy is the summary of a workshop convened by the Air Force Studies Board of the National Academies' National Research Council in September 2013 to enhance Air Force and Department of Defense (DoD) prototyping for the new defense strategy. This workshop examined of a wide range of prototyping issues, including individual recommendations for a renewed prototype program, application of prototyping as a tool for technology/system development and sustainment (including annual funding), and positive and negative effects of a renewed program. Prototyping has historically been of great benefit to the Air Force and DoD in terms of risk reduction and concept demonstration prior to system development, advancing new technologies, workforce enhancement and skills continuity between major acquisitions, dissuasion of adversaries by demonstrating capabilities, maintaining technological surprise through classified technologies, and an overarching strategy of overall risk reduction during austere budget environments. Over the last two decades, however, many issues with prototyping have arisen. For example, the definitions and terminology associated with prototyping have been convoluted and budgets for prototyping have been used as offsets to remedy budget shortfalls. Additionally, prototyping has been done with no strategic intent or context, and both government and industry have misused prototyping as a key tool in the DoD and defense industrial base. Assessment to Enhance Air Force and Department of Defense Prototyping for the New Defense Strategy envisions a prototyping program that encourages innovation in new concepts and approaches and provides a means to assess and reduce risk before commitment to major new programs."--Publisher's description.