Cao Y, Zhang W, Liang Y, Feng Z, Jiang C, Chen Z, and Jiang X
Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England) [Comput Assist Surg (Abingdon)] 2019 Dec; Vol. 24 (1), pp. 1-6. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Jan 21.
It is technically demanding and requires rich experience to insert the translaminar facet screw(TFS) via the paramedian mini-incision approach. It seems that it is easy to place the TFS using computer-assisted design and rapid prototyping(RP) techniques. However, the accuracy and safety of these techniques is still unknown. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy and safety of translaminar facet screw placement in multilevel unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using a rapid prototyping drill guide template system. A patient-matched rapid prototyping translaminar facet screw guide was examined in fourteen cadaveric lumbar spine specimens. A three-dimensional (3D) preoperative screw trajectory was constructed using spinal computed tomography scans, from which individualized guides were developed for the placement of translaminar facet screws. Following bone tunnel establishment, the 3D positioning of the entry point and trajectory of the screws was compared to the preoperative plan as found in the Mimics software.Among 60 trajectories eligible for assessment, no cases of clinically significant laminar perforation were found. The mean deviation between the planned and the actual starting points on spinous process was 1.22 mm. The mean tail and submergence angle deviation was found to be 0.68°and 1.46°, respectively. Among all the deviations, none were found to have any statistical significance. These results indicate that translaminar facet screw placement using the guide system is both accurate and safe.
Orabona GD, Abbate V, Maglitto F, Committeri U, Improta G, Bonavolontà P, Reccia A, Somma T, Iaconetta G, and Califano L
The Journal Of Craniofacial Surgery [J Craniofac Surg] 2019 Oct; Vol. 30 (7), pp. 2057-2060.
Zygomatic fractures account for 10% to 15% of all facial fractures. The surgical management of isolated zygomatic arch fractures usually requires open reduction treatment without fixation through an intraoral access. Therefore, the main problem in the non-fixed treatment of zygomatic arch fractures is related to the difficulty in obtaining a stable reduction for a period long enough to guarantee the physiological bone healing process. We propose an innovative "in-house" rapid prototyping (RP) protocol for the 3D-zygoma mask manufacture of a patient-specific protective device to apply after zygomatic arch fracture reduction. Our study includes 16 consecutive patients who underwent surgical open reduction for an isolated zygoma fracture without fixation between January 2017 and February 2018. The patients received regular postoperative checks at weeks 1 and 2. Before the device was removed, a multiple choice questionnaire was administered to measure the degree of wearability of the mask. The estimated cost of the production is around &OV0556;5 per case and the construction time is around 90 minutes. Based on the encouraging results, obtained in our experience, we hope that other studies can be conducted to confirm our procedure and improve its functionality in the field of facial trauma.
Abbate V, Iaconetta G, Califano L, Pansini A, Bonavolontà P, Romano A, Salzano G, Somma T, D'Andrea L, and Dell'Aversana Orabona G
The Journal Of Craniofacial Surgery [J Craniofac Surg] 2019 Oct; Vol. 30 (7), pp. 2106-2110.
Background: Restoring the orbital cavity integrity in orbital floor defects is a challenging issue due to the anatomical complexity of the floor's surface. This is a showcase for technical description of a novel "in house" rapid prototyping protocol aimed to customize implant for orbital floor reconstruction. Methods: The authors present 4 cases to show our Computer-aided-design and Computer-aided-manufacturing digital workflow. The system was based on a 3D-printed press that; through a virtually designed mold, was used to conform a patient specific titanium mesh for orbital floor reconstruction. Results: The merging procedure analysis by iPlan Cranial 3.0 (Brainlab, Munich, Germany) highlighted a 0.71 ± 0.23 mm (P <0.05) discrepancy in a point-to-point superimposition between the digital planned reconstruction and the real in vivo result. Conclusions: The authors expect that this technique will reduce operative time and cost however further study and larger series may better define the applicability in everyday surgical practice.
Lehr FX, Hanst M, Vogel M, Kremer J, Göringer HU, Suess B, and Koeppl H
ACS Synthetic Biology [ACS Synth Biol] 2019 Sep 20; Vol. 8 (9), pp. 2163-2173. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Aug 27.
RNA-based devices controlling gene expression bear great promise for synthetic biology, as they offer many advantages such as short response times and light metabolic burden compared to protein-circuits. However, little work has been done regarding their integration to multilevel regulated circuits. In this work, we combined a variety of small transcriptional activator RNAs (STARs) and toehold switches to build highly effective AND-gates. To characterize the components and their dynamic range, we used an Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell-free transcription-translation (TX-TL) system dispensed via nanoliter droplets. We analyzed a prototype gate in vitro as well as in silico, employing parametrized ordinary differential equations (ODEs), for which parameters were inferred via parallel tempering, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. On the basis of this analysis, we created nine additional AND-gates and tested them in vitro. The functionality of the gates was found to be highly dependent on the concentration of the activating RNA for either the STAR or the toehold switch. All gates were successfully implemented in vivo, offering a dynamic range comparable to the level of protein circuits. This study shows the potential of a rapid prototyping approach for RNA circuit design, using cell-free systems in combination with a model prediction.
Comrie ML, Monteith G, Zur Linden A, Oblak M, Phillips J, and James FMK
Plos One [PLoS One] 2019 Mar 25; Vol. 14 (3), pp. e0214123. Date of Electronic Publication: 20190325 (Print Publication: 2019).
This study's objective was to determine the accuracy of using current computed tomography (CT) scan and software techniques for rapid prototyping by quantifying the margin of error between CT models and laser scans of canine skull specimens. Twenty canine skulls of varying morphology were selected from an anatomy collection at a veterinary school. CT scans (bone and standard algorithms) were performed for each skull, and data segmented (testing two lower threshold settings of 226HU and -650HU) into 3-D CT models. Laser scans were then performed on each skull. The CT models were compared to the corresponding laser scan to determine the error generated from the different types of CT model parameters. This error was then compared between the different types of CT models to determine the most accurate parameters. The mean errors for the 226HU CT models, both bone and standard algorithms, were not significant from zero error (p = 0.1076 and p = 0.0580, respectively). The mean errors for both -650HU CT models were significant from zero error (p < 0.001). Significant differences were detected between CT models for 3 CT model comparisons: Bone (p < 0.0001); Standard (p < 0.0001); and -650HU (p < 0.0001). For 226HU CT models, a significant difference was not detected between CT models (p = 0.2268). Independent of the parameters tested, the 3-D models derived from CT imaging accurately represent the real skull dimensions, with CT models differing less than 0.42 mm from the real skull dimensions. The 226HU threshold was more accurate than the -650HU threshold. For the 226HU CT models, accuracy was not dependent on the CT algorithm. For the -650 CT models, bone was more accurate than standard algorithms. Knowing the inherent error of this procedure is important for use in 3-D printing for surgical planning and medical education.