Renewable energy industry, Green technology, Wind power, Rapid prototyping, and Technological innovations
The demonstration project can be an effective organizational form to transform a clean technology prototype-for example, in the field of photovoltaics, carbon capture and storage, or wind power-into a marketable product. A question with regard to the clean technology demonstration project is how its effectiveness can be increased. This article answers this question by reviewing scientific literature on clean technology demonstration projects of the past 39 years. It distinguishes and analyzes three types of demonstration projects: the technical demonstration, organizational demonstration, and market demonstration. The article proposes that the effectiveness of demonstration projects increases when clean technology prototypes are tested, improved, and marketed successively. First, they should be tested in technical demonstrations, then improved in organizational demonstrations, and finally marketed in market demonstrations. The article also proposes five managerial factors that stimulate the effectiveness of the three consecutive demonstration types. The article concludes with an agenda for future research, concentrating on the diffusion of clean technological innovations through a coherent program of demonstration projects. It presents several theoretical approaches that can be applied to conduct future demonstration project research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. Sep2017, Vol. 77, p1349-1362. 14p.
Sustainability, Teaching demonstrations, Technological innovations, Learning, and Prototypes
This article develops a model of sustainable energy demonstration projects, based on a review of 229 scientific publications on demonstrations in renewable and sustainable energy. The model addresses the basic organizational characteristics (aim, cooperative form, and physical location) and learning effects (technical, organizational, policy and market learning) of sustainable energy demonstration projects (prototyping, organizing, and market demonstrations). This article concludes that a main effect of the reviewed demonstrations is that these projects enable people to learn to further develop, apply and commercialize sustainable, renewable and clean energy technologies. They provide four specific learning opportunities; they 1) enable scientists and technicians to learn how to technically develop sustainable energy prototypes; 2) facilitate technicians and managers to learn to build an organization that produces these sustainable energy prototypes on a large(r) scale; 3) help public policy officers to learn to develop public policy that stimulates the commercialization process of these sustainable energy prototypes; and 4) support commercial professionals to learn how to bring sustainable energy prototypes to the market. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The promise of environmental conservation incentive programs that provide direct payments in exchange for conservation outcomes is that they enhance the value of engaging in stewardship behaviors. An insidious but important concern is that a narrow focus on optimizing payment levels can ultimately suppress program participation and subvert participants' internal motivation to engage in long-term conservation behaviors. Increasing participation and engendering stewardship can be achieved by recognizing that participation is not simply a function of the payment; it is a function of the overall structure and administration of the program. Key to creating innovative and more sustainable programs is fitting them within the existing needs and values of target participants. By focusing on empathy for participants, co-designing program approaches, and learning from the rapid prototyping of program concepts, a human-centered approach to conservation incentive program design enhances the propensity for discovery of novel and innovative solutions to pressing conservation issues. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]