Lim, Youn-Kyung, Stolterman, Erik, and Tenenberg, Josh
ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction. 15(2)
Natural Sciences, Computer and Information Sciences, Information Systems, Naturvetenskap, Data- och informationsvetenskap, Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik, Social Sciences, Media and Communications, Information Systems, Social aspects, Samhällsvetenskap, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap, Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik med samhällsvetenskaplig inriktning, prototype, prototyping, design, design space, and human-computer interaction
The role of prototypes is well established in the field of HCI and Design. A lack of knowledge, however, about the fundamental nature of prototypes still exists. Researchers have attempted to identify different types of prototypes, such as low-vs. high-fidelity prototypes, but these attempts have centered on evaluation rather than support of design exploration. There have also been efforts to provide new ways of thinking about the activity of using prototypes, such as experience prototyping and paper prototyping, but these efforts do not provide a discourse for understanding fundamental characteristics of prototypes. In this article, we propose an anatomy of prototypes as a framework for prototype conceptualization. We view prototypes not only in their role in evaluation but also in their generative role in enabling designers to reflect on their design activities in exploring a design space. We base this framework on the findings of two case studies that reveal two key dimensions: prototypes as filters and prototypes as manifestations. We explain why these two dimensions are important and how this conceptual framework can benefit our field by establishing more solid and systematic knowledge about prototypes and prototyping.
Engström, Henrik, Östblad, Per Anders, Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, and Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi
Computers in Entertainment. 16(4)
Natural Sciences, Computer and Information Sciences, Media and Communication Technology, Naturvetenskap, Data- och informationsvetenskap, Medieteknik, game development, game writing, game audio, speech technology, text- to-speech, design science research, Interaction Lab (ILAB), and Media, Technology and Culture (MTEC)
Voice acting is common in computer games in many genres. The recording and processing of voice acting is a time-consuming process that involves, for instance, voice actors, directors, audio engineers, and game writers. Changes to the script of a game after the voice acting has been recorded are expensive. At the same time, playtests of games without voice acting may give different results than testing where it is present. This creates a situation where improvements identified from play testing are either ignored or leads to extensive re-recording of voice acting. This article presents a design science research project where text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis is used as a substitute for recorded voice acting in the early stages of game production. We propose a set of design principles that have been evaluated in a sharp game production. Our results indicate several benefits of using TTS as a prototyping tool: It can be a source of inspiration for game writers, it gives good estimations on timing and pacing of the game, and it allows for early tests of how the dialog will be perceived by players. The quality and characteristics of the voices provided by the TTS system play an important role in this process. The rapid development in the speech technology field opens many future possibilities.