Rapid prototyping, Manufacturing processes, Specifications, Manufactures, and Supply chains
Despite the use of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies in a lot of applications including the production of some high-value products for end use, it is still very much an untapped potential. There is an increase in usage of AM technology for the manufacture of end-use products (Rapid Manufacturing (RM)) in recent years, but mass use of the technology in terms of speed, cost and quality, which is acceptable by the general consumer, is still not widely in existence today. The concept of RM as a viable production process is still not understood by many businesses/consumers, with thinking still dominated by the AM technologies for Rapid Prototyping (RP) applications. A key difference between RM and RP is in the supply chain. The RM supply chain is much more complicated than the RP supply chain. This research conducted a Delphi Study to identify the requirements or pre-requisites necessary for the use of RM technologies as a viable means to manufacture end used products (RM application of AM) in mass scale. The paper identifies 36 requirements or pre-requisites and classified them into various classes of importance in order to highlight their significance. In addition to supply chain issues, the requirements unearthed are factors or features about RM technology (equipment), materials and processes that need modification, upgrading or creation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Epoxy-based composite molds are frequently used for polymer and wax materials injection. Three kinds of epoxy-based composite mold inserts fabrication methods are proposed in this work. A simple and cost-effective method for fabricating epoxy-based composite mold inserts of propeller using rapid prototyping and rapid tooling technique is demonstrated. The advantages of this method include high successful rate of mold fabrication, low-cost, and good surface roughness of the mold inserts. This method can be employed in the intermediate tooling to produce a small quantity of working samples by plastic injection molding at the first development stage for a new product. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This paper first reviews manufacturing technologies for realizing air-filled metal-pipe rectangular waveguides (MPRWGs) and 3-D printing for microwave and millimeter-wave applications. Then, 3-D printed MPRWGs are investigated in detail. Two very different 3-D printing technologies have been considered: low-cost lower-resolution fused deposition modeling for microwave applications and higher-cost high-resolution stereolithography for millimeter-wave applications. Measurements against traceable standards in MPRWGs were performed by the U.K.’s National Physical Laboratory. It was found that the performance of the 3-D printed MPRWGs were comparable with those of standard waveguides. For example, across X-band (8–12 GHz), the dissipative attenuation ranges between 0.2 and 0.6 dB/m, with a worst case return loss of 32 dB; at W-band (75–110 GHz), the dissipative attenuation was 11 dB/m at the band edges, with a worst case return loss of 19 dB. Finally, a high-performance W-band sixth-order inductive iris bandpass filter, having a center frequency of 107.2 GHz and a 6.8-GHz bandwidth, was demonstrated. The measured insertion loss of the complete structure (filter, feed sections, and flanges) was only 0.95 dB at center frequency, giving an unloaded quality factor of 152—clearly demonstrating the potential of this low-cost manufacturing technology, offering the advantages of lightweight rapid prototyping/manufacturing and relatively very low cost when compared with traditional (micro)machining. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
International Journal of Production Economics. Mar2014, Vol. 149, p194-201. 8p.
Rapid prototyping, Mass production, Business ecosystems, Industrial design, Sustainability, and Structural frame models
Abstract: As mass production has migrated to developing countries, European and US companies are forced to rapidly switch towards low volume production of more innovative, customised and sustainable products with high added value. To compete in this turbulent environment, manufacturers have sought new fabrication techniques to provide the necessary tools to support the need for increased flexibility and enable economic low volume production. One such emerging technique is Additive Manufacturing (AM). AM is a method of manufacture which involves the joining of materials, usually layer-upon-layer, to create objects from 3D model data. The benefits of this methodology include new design freedom, removal of tooling requirements, and economic low volumes. AM consists of various technologies to process versatile materials, and for many years its dominant application has been the manufacture of prototypes, or Rapid Prototyping. However, the recent growth in applications for direct part manufacture, or Rapid Manufacturing, has resulted in much research effort focusing on development of new processes and materials. This study focuses on the implementation process of AM and is motivated by the lack of socio-technical studies in this area. It addresses the need for existing and potential future AM project managers to have an implementation framework to guide their efforts in adopting this new and potentially disruptive technology class to produce high value products and generate new business opportunities. Based on a review of prior works and through qualitative case study analysis, we construct and test a normative structural model of implementation factors related to AM technology, supply chain, organisation, operations and strategy. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Rapid prototyping, Automation, Three-dimensional printing, Kinematics of machinery, Biomimetic materials, and Smart materials
Purpose – This feature article aims to review state-of-the-art developments in additive manufacture, in particular, 4D printing. It discusses what it is, what research has been carried out and maps potential applications and its future impact. Design/methodology/approach – The article first defines additive manufacturing technologies and goes on to describe the state-of-the-art. Following which the paper examines several case studies and maps a trend that shows an emergence of 4D printing. Findings – The case studies highlight a particular specialization within additive manufacture where the use of adaptive, biomimetic composites can be programmed to reshape, or have embedded properties or functionality that transform themselves when subjected to external stimuli. Originality/value – This paper discusses the state-of-the-art of additive manufacture, discussing strategies that can be used to reduce the print process (such as through kinematics); and the use of smart materials where parts adapt themselves in response to the surrounding environment supporting the notion of self-assemblies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Planning, Machining, Manufacturing processes, Machinery, Milling machinery, and Machine-shop practice
he article presents a new methodology for rapid planning in CNC milling. The method makes it possible to rapidly plan and create machined parts and prototypes with little or no human intervention. The method presented involves milling parts using a plurality of 21/2-D toolpaths oriented about an axis of rotation. Because the method strictly adheres to feature-free solutions, the complexities of most models do not affect system performance. Visibility approaches using 2-D slice geometry have made it simple to extract critical process planning information. The research has also further developed the concept of sacrificial supports for use in a subtractive process.
Layered manufacturing technologies have been used to produce complex parts of diversified materials through different physical/chemical manufacturing principles. Nevertheless only a few materials are commercially available to build parts suitable for engineering applications. In this paper, the powder fusion of H13 tool steel is investigated. A high power Nd:YAG pulsed laser source on a CNC machine was used to fuse the powder, layer by layer, building solid cubes for further analysis. Four different laser vector scanning strategies were evaluated by comparing the results of porosity and layer distortion. The complexity of the laser/powder interaction shows that a complex strategy must be used to avoid porosity and distortion. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]