Rapid prototyping, Manufacturing processes, Specifications, Manufactures, and Supply chains
Despite the use of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies in a lot of applications including the production of some high-value products for end use, it is still very much an untapped potential. There is an increase in usage of AM technology for the manufacture of end-use products (Rapid Manufacturing (RM)) in recent years, but mass use of the technology in terms of speed, cost and quality, which is acceptable by the general consumer, is still not widely in existence today. The concept of RM as a viable production process is still not understood by many businesses/consumers, with thinking still dominated by the AM technologies for Rapid Prototyping (RP) applications. A key difference between RM and RP is in the supply chain. The RM supply chain is much more complicated than the RP supply chain. This research conducted a Delphi Study to identify the requirements or pre-requisites necessary for the use of RM technologies as a viable means to manufacture end used products (RM application of AM) in mass scale. The paper identifies 36 requirements or pre-requisites and classified them into various classes of importance in order to highlight their significance. In addition to supply chain issues, the requirements unearthed are factors or features about RM technology (equipment), materials and processes that need modification, upgrading or creation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Epoxy-based composite molds are frequently used for polymer and wax materials injection. Three kinds of epoxy-based composite mold inserts fabrication methods are proposed in this work. A simple and cost-effective method for fabricating epoxy-based composite mold inserts of propeller using rapid prototyping and rapid tooling technique is demonstrated. The advantages of this method include high successful rate of mold fabrication, low-cost, and good surface roughness of the mold inserts. This method can be employed in the intermediate tooling to produce a small quantity of working samples by plastic injection molding at the first development stage for a new product. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This paper first reviews manufacturing technologies for realizing air-filled metal-pipe rectangular waveguides (MPRWGs) and 3-D printing for microwave and millimeter-wave applications. Then, 3-D printed MPRWGs are investigated in detail. Two very different 3-D printing technologies have been considered: low-cost lower-resolution fused deposition modeling for microwave applications and higher-cost high-resolution stereolithography for millimeter-wave applications. Measurements against traceable standards in MPRWGs were performed by the U.K.’s National Physical Laboratory. It was found that the performance of the 3-D printed MPRWGs were comparable with those of standard waveguides. For example, across X-band (8–12 GHz), the dissipative attenuation ranges between 0.2 and 0.6 dB/m, with a worst case return loss of 32 dB; at W-band (75–110 GHz), the dissipative attenuation was 11 dB/m at the band edges, with a worst case return loss of 19 dB. Finally, a high-performance W-band sixth-order inductive iris bandpass filter, having a center frequency of 107.2 GHz and a 6.8-GHz bandwidth, was demonstrated. The measured insertion loss of the complete structure (filter, feed sections, and flanges) was only 0.95 dB at center frequency, giving an unloaded quality factor of 152—clearly demonstrating the potential of this low-cost manufacturing technology, offering the advantages of lightweight rapid prototyping/manufacturing and relatively very low cost when compared with traditional (micro)machining. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
International Journal of Production Economics. Mar2014, Vol. 149, p194-201. 8p.
Rapid prototyping, Mass production, Business ecosystems, Industrial design, Sustainability, and Structural frame models
Abstract: As mass production has migrated to developing countries, European and US companies are forced to rapidly switch towards low volume production of more innovative, customised and sustainable products with high added value. To compete in this turbulent environment, manufacturers have sought new fabrication techniques to provide the necessary tools to support the need for increased flexibility and enable economic low volume production. One such emerging technique is Additive Manufacturing (AM). AM is a method of manufacture which involves the joining of materials, usually layer-upon-layer, to create objects from 3D model data. The benefits of this methodology include new design freedom, removal of tooling requirements, and economic low volumes. AM consists of various technologies to process versatile materials, and for many years its dominant application has been the manufacture of prototypes, or Rapid Prototyping. However, the recent growth in applications for direct part manufacture, or Rapid Manufacturing, has resulted in much research effort focusing on development of new processes and materials. This study focuses on the implementation process of AM and is motivated by the lack of socio-technical studies in this area. It addresses the need for existing and potential future AM project managers to have an implementation framework to guide their efforts in adopting this new and potentially disruptive technology class to produce high value products and generate new business opportunities. Based on a review of prior works and through qualitative case study analysis, we construct and test a normative structural model of implementation factors related to AM technology, supply chain, organisation, operations and strategy. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]
Rapid prototyping, Automation, Three-dimensional printing, Kinematics of machinery, Biomimetic materials, and Smart materials
Purpose – This feature article aims to review state-of-the-art developments in additive manufacture, in particular, 4D printing. It discusses what it is, what research has been carried out and maps potential applications and its future impact. Design/methodology/approach – The article first defines additive manufacturing technologies and goes on to describe the state-of-the-art. Following which the paper examines several case studies and maps a trend that shows an emergence of 4D printing. Findings – The case studies highlight a particular specialization within additive manufacture where the use of adaptive, biomimetic composites can be programmed to reshape, or have embedded properties or functionality that transform themselves when subjected to external stimuli. Originality/value – This paper discusses the state-of-the-art of additive manufacture, discussing strategies that can be used to reduce the print process (such as through kinematics); and the use of smart materials where parts adapt themselves in response to the surrounding environment supporting the notion of self-assemblies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Planning, Machining, Manufacturing processes, Machinery, Milling machinery, and Machine-shop practice
he article presents a new methodology for rapid planning in CNC milling. The method makes it possible to rapidly plan and create machined parts and prototypes with little or no human intervention. The method presented involves milling parts using a plurality of 21/2-D toolpaths oriented about an axis of rotation. Because the method strictly adheres to feature-free solutions, the complexities of most models do not affect system performance. Visibility approaches using 2-D slice geometry have made it simple to extract critical process planning information. The research has also further developed the concept of sacrificial supports for use in a subtractive process.
Layered manufacturing technologies have been used to produce complex parts of diversified materials through different physical/chemical manufacturing principles. Nevertheless only a few materials are commercially available to build parts suitable for engineering applications. In this paper, the powder fusion of H13 tool steel is investigated. A high power Nd:YAG pulsed laser source on a CNC machine was used to fuse the powder, layer by layer, building solid cubes for further analysis. Four different laser vector scanning strategies were evaluated by comparing the results of porosity and layer distortion. The complexity of the laser/powder interaction shows that a complex strategy must be used to avoid porosity and distortion. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Munguía, Javier, Lloveras, Joaquim, Llorens, Sonia, and Laoui, Tahar
International Journal of Production Research. Apr2010, Vol. 48 Issue 8, p2261-2278. 18p. 2 Color Photographs, 9 Diagrams, 4 Charts, 2 Graphs.
Manufacturing processes, Artificial intelligence, Manufactures, Rapid prototyping, Trade routes, Relational databases, New product development, Decision making, Time management, Cost control, and Cost analysis
The purpose of this paper is to assess the possibility of using Rapid Manufacturing (RM) as a final manufacturing route through a comparison of RM capabilities vs. conventional manufacturing routes. This is done by means of a computer-aided system intended to guide the designer in the selection of optimum production parameters according to general product requirements proper of the first design stages. The proposed system makes use of a number of artificial intelligence (AI) tools, namely: fuzzy inference, relational databases and rule-based decision making to reach an optimum solution. A pilot application developed in Matlab® is presented to illustrate the system application on a real mechanical part used as a case study. In the article it is shown how the proposed model may be useful for presenting feasible RM alternatives for parts and products not originally intended for additive manufacture. It also indicates when no RM alternatives are suitable for the given tasks, thus indicating those areas of knowledge which are necessary to expand in order to have at disposal comprehensive and reliable info on RM to compete with conventional processes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
International Journal of Production Research. 8/15/2006, Vol. 44 Issue 16, p3325-3343. 19p. 1 Chart.
Prototypes, Manufacturing processes, Product design, Industrial design, Manufactures, Technology, and Case studies
Current research by the developers of rapid prototyping systems is generally focused on improvements in cost, speed and materials to create truly economic and practical economic rapid manufacturing (RM) machines. In addition to being potentially smarter/faster/cheaper replacements for existing manufacturing technologies, the next generation of these machines will provide opportunities not only for the design and fabrication of products without traditional constraints but also for organizing manufacturing activities in new, innovative and previously undreamt of ways. This paper outlines a novel devolved manufacturing (DM) ‘factory-less’ approach to e-manufacturing, which integrates mass customization (MC) concepts, RM technologies and the communication opportunities of the Internet/World Wide Web, describes two case studies of different DM implementations and discusses the limitations and appropriateness of each, and, finally, draws some conclusions about the technical, manufacturing and business challenges involved. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The paper presents work on the development of a build-time estimator for rapid manufacturing. A time estimator is required to develop a comprehensive costing tool for rapid manufacturing. An empirical method was used to estimate build times using both simulated and actual builds for a laser sintering machine. The estimator presented herein is based upon object geometry and, therefore, the fundamental data driving the model are obtainable from current three-dimensional computer-aided design models. The aim is to define a model describing the build times for a laser sintering machine either for single or multiple objects. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Studia Commercialia Bratislavensia. Dec2013, Vol. 6 Issue 24, p536-552. 17p.
Business models, Supply chains, Supply & demand, Manufacturing processes, and Industrial arts
The use of the Rapid Manufacturing (RM) technologies to manufacture end used product has become a more viable proposition these days than it was in the past. However, the characteristics of the technology allow for unconventional usage and subsequent supply chain support requirements. Therefore, it can be argued that the RM supply chain concepts have the potential room for further evolution. This research focuses on the possibility and structure of a business model tailored for the unconventional RM supply chain requirements. In this regard, the paper proposes the Virtual Trading System or VTS, which is an e-business platform that could potentially provide an alternative to the RM industry, in terms of supply chain functionality. The research outlines the structure of such a business model in detail, based on the requirements of the RM industry. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to extend existing knowledge of 4D printing, in line with Khoo et al. (2015) who defined the production of 4D printing using a single material, and 4D printing of multiple materials. It is proposed that 4D printing can be achieved through the use of functionally graded materials (FGMs) that involve gradational mixing of materials and are produced using an additive manufacturing (AM) technique to achieve a single component.Design/methodology/approach The latest state-of-the-art literature was extensively reviewed, covering aspects of materials, processes, computer-aided design (CAD), applications and made recommendations for future work.Findings This paper clarifies that functionally graded additive manufacturing (FGAM) is defined as a single AM process that includes the gradational mixing of materials to fabricate freeform geometries with variable properties within one component. The paper also covers aspects of materials, processes, CAD, applications and makes recommendations for future work.Research limitations/implications This paper examines the relationship between FGAM and 4D printing and defines FGAM as a single AM process involving gradational mixing of materials to fabricate freeform geometries with variable properties within one component. FGAM requires better computational tools for modelling, simulation and fabrication because current CAD systems are incapable of supporting the FGAM workflow.Practical implications It is also identified that other factors, such as strength, type of materials, etc., must be taken into account when selecting an appropriate process for FGAM. More research needs to be conducted on improving the performance of FGAM processes through extensive characterisation of FGMs to generate a comprehensive database and to develop a predictive model for proper process control. It is expected that future work will focus on both material characterisation as well as seamless FGAM control processes.Originality/value This paper examines the relationship between FGAM and 4D printing and defines FGAM as a single AM process that includes gradational mixing of materials to fabricate freeform geometries with variable properties within one component. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]