Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Technology, Biomedical Engineering, Rapid Prototyping and Reverse Engineering Application, Rapid Manufacturing, and Customized Implants Manufacturing
This study examines the possible application of reverse engineering and rapidprototyping technologies to the manufacture of customized implants from scannedanatomical images.This thesis is composed of five chapters. The first chapter provides a brief overview ofthe rapid prototyping technologies, statement of the problem, purpose of this research and the question this research seeks to answer.The second chapter is concerned with reverse engineering in relation to the medical field. It describes ways in which anatomical images can be obtained from a patient. It also highlights the file format that is required for rapid prototyping processes.The third chapter discusses the FDM processes that were selected for this research, the materials that are biocompatible for the manufacture of implants and the general process in RE and RP technologies.Chapter four shows the processes that scanned anatomical images should go through so that they can be 3D printed using applicable software with Z Corp and MakerBot printers. It demonstrates the step-by-step method of converting a scanned image into a CAM file that can be 3D printed.Chapter five discusses the outcome of the research and the conclusions drawn. Further research recommendations are outlined in this chapter.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is an area of high interest due to its rapid prototyping and high complexity abilities. Powder based AM techniques allow for a wide variety of materials to be studied. Here, the binder jetting of fused silica (SiO2) powders were investigated as precursor materials for subsequent molten metal infiltration and the manufacturing of metal-ceramic interpenetrating phase composites (IPCs). The structure property relationship of cured, sintered, and infiltrated states were correlated to the variables powder size, spread speed, binder saturation, layer thickness, and sintering temperature.The process parameters of the X1-Lab printer were optimized to manufacture the strongest SiO2 ceramic body with the highest density. The printed parts were subsequently infiltrated with molten aluminum to create unique Al/Al2O3 IPCs. The parameters of 48 µm powders, 0.5 mm/sec spread speed, 60% binder saturation, 100 µm layer thickness, and 1500°C sintering temperature resulted in the highest density and compression strength of both the sintered and composite states. It was also found, that the mechanical investigation of the composite materials exhibited a strain-rate dependency that was observed by the split Hopkinson testing. In addition to the aforementioned outcomes, it was found that further densification of the printed parts is required to achieve the full potential of additive manufacturing on synthesizing IPCs for structural applications. A homogenization technique was also carried out via Matlab, and it showed to be a quick and reliable simulation technique to predict the elastic modulus of a two-phase composite system. Finally, alternative processing techniques were explored to create dense printed and infiltrated parts. It was shown that the agglomeration of small particles and the addition of external pressure during the infiltration stage appear to be promising routes for increasing the density of IPCs manufactured via binder jetting.