Journal of Architectural Engineering. Mar2014, Vol. 20 Issue 1, p1-10. 10p. 3 Color Photographs, 1 Black and White Photograph, 14 Diagrams, 3 Charts.
CONSTRUCTION industry automation, ARCHITECTURAL design, INDUSTRIAL engineering, ARCHITECTURE, and COMPUTER simulation
With the advent of precast construction technology, the construction industry has seen a rapid change in the way structures are built. Precast construction has reduced project costs and durations, increased the predictability, and improved the quality of construction. It has also resulted in a shift in construction tasks from the construction site to the factory floor. Precast elements are manufactured and cured in controlled factory environments and are then transported to the construction site for assembly. This shift into the factory makes the process a viable candidate for automation. However, because of the nature of the construction industry, it is important that the automation technology used be reconfigurable in a way that accommodates frequent changes in design and demand. Most precast elements currently used are made of RC. This paper considers the unique constraints inherent in precast construction and proposes a method with which to automate the production of precast concrete elements. Assembly and placement of rebar cages is an important step during the precast segment manufacturing process. An automated procedure for assembling the steel reinforcement cage for precast elements is described. This includes the placement of longitudinal reinforcement bars, followed by the placement and bending of transverse reinforcement. The entire design and analysis is conducted using virtual reality (VR)-assisted virtual prototyping to reach a favorable design for the proposed mechanism, without having to construct an actual prototype. Several simulations of the proposed mechanism were run and the kinematic design of the mechanism was evaluated. It was observed that the VR model offers a cost-effective method for the iterative design and evaluation of the mechanism. It can also be used to study and optimize joint trajectories. Future work includes developing a scaled prototype model to validate the design, followed by a full-scale prototype. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Our experiments are intended to refocus attention on the study of geometry, in particular on ruled surfaces, their possible discrete forms and/or development in the plane. The study of geometry is oriented to the concept, formal and expressive control, and built form. We begin with the critical analysis of the geometric shape, go through the problems of its virtual representation - also in parametric form - and finally transform it into a physical object with simple prototyping equipment that, on a small scale, reproduces a process repeatable at the large scale of architectural building. This is therefore a digital approach with roots in descriptive geometry. During our experimentation several models were realized, both parametric and physical. Today models can assist in experimental testing and are useful instruments for showing how the research was carried out. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Various emerging technologies encourage the embedding of intelligent and climate responsive behaviour into architectural elements. Light-shelves have been used for decades to enhance natural light in spaces, however, their static nature is limiting their overall performance potential. This paper explores the convergence of rapid prototyping, parametric design and environmental modelling software to create a dynamic and direct-reflection daylight redirection system that significantly enhances daylight availability. A Radiance-based simulation workflow to optimise and study the system is used and a 1:1 mock-up is developed. The mock-up is based on a horizontal-light shelf with an array of mirror tiles that can tilt in two axes based on sun position. The potential impact of such a system is then evaluated for a side lit office space in multiple climates in the northern hemisphere. Results show that daylight can be redirected deep into the building more effectively and therefore improve daylight availability for otherwise underlit floor plan regions. Projected savings for electric lighting range from 17% to 35% compared with a static redirection system. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
ARCHITECTURAL design, RAPID prototyping, SEMI-structured interviews, BUILT environment, and MANUFACTURING processes
Model making is a crucial part of the design development for evaluating the form, fit, and functionality of a design before a notable investment is made. The emergence of novel technologies and their increasing uptake are helping to redefine the architecture and the architects' master builder role by altering the way architects think and make things. Different methods and strategies are available to utilize for the production of artifacts that are considered not only to be new communication and representation tools but also are being utilized for testing and evaluation during design processes. Rapid-prototyping processes are forming a language for use between different phases of the design and are considered as a feedback mechanism informing each other. This article presents the experimental research products of two rapid-prototyping technologies, focusing on how each technology can effectively be used in the delivery of design intent. Prototyping machines were used in testing the accuracy of the geometry of the design, in terms of protecting the design intent within the production process of each model. To verify the results of the experiment, researchers conducted semistructured interviews with the experts in the built environment, and a preliminary decision-making matrix was generated, aiming to provide guidance to the architectural designers on how to effectively use the current rapid-prototyping technologies within design processes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RAPID prototyping, TECHNOLOGICAL innovations, ARCHITECTURAL design, ARCHITECTURAL education, and PROFESSIONAL practice
This paper discusses a key subject of research at ISCTE-IUL. Digital fabrication in architecture offers new perspectives and design innovation in three main areas: academia, research and professional practice. In order to investigate these new challenges and its contributions to architecture in Portugal, a group of multidisciplinary researchers organized a symposium that presented a state of the art in digital fabrication. The main points were the creation of the Vitruvius FabLab-IUL laboratory and the definition of appropriate new lines of research in digital fabrication. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Human-Computer Interaction. Jun2006, Vol. 21 Issue 2, p199-233. 35p. 24 Black and White Photographs, 1 Illustration, 1 Diagram, 2 Charts.
COMPUTER graphics, PROTOTYPES, INFORMATION resources, VIDEO equipment, COMMUNICATION & technology, ARCHITECTURAL design, SET design, BUSINESS communication, and VISUAL perception
Computing power is an integrated part of our physical environment, and since our physical environment is three-dimensional, the virtual studio technology, with its unique potential for visualizing digital 3D objects and environments along with physical objects, offers an obvious path to pursue in order to envision future usage scenarios in the domain of pervasive computing.We label the work method virtual video prototyping, which grew out of a number of information systems design techniques along with approaches to visualization in the field of architecture and set design.We present a collection of virtual video prototyping cases and use them as the platform for a discussion, which pinpoint advantages and disadvantages of working with virtual video prototyping as a tool for communication, experimentation and reflection in the design process. Based on more than ten cases we have made the observations that virtual video prototypes 1) are a powerful medium of communication in development teams and for communication with industry partners and potential investors, 2) support both testing and generating ideas 3) are particular suited for addressing spatial issues and new ways of interacting. In addition practical use of virtual video prototypes has indicated the need to take into account some critical issues including a) production resources, b) hand-on experience, and c) the seductive power of virtual video prototypes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Datta, Sambit, Sharman, Michael, and Chang, Teng-Wen
Automation in Construction. Dec2016 Part 1, Vol. 72, p26-32. 7p.
RAPID prototyping, ARCHITECTURAL design, VAULTS (Architecture), PROTOTYPES, and STRUCTURAL components
The formal, functional, and material attributes of design are routinely investigated through the construction of physical models and scaled prototypes. With the increasing adoption of computational workflows, the digital to physical translation process is central to the construction of scaled prototypes. However, the choice of methods, tools and materials for computational prototyping is a developing area. Therefore a systematic body of knowledge on the benefits and costs of multiple methods of computational prototyping for the construction of physical prototypes need to be identified. This paper addresses the prototyping process through the comparison of three computational methods of fabrication through the modelling, analysis and construction of a Gaussian Vault. It reports on the process of digital to physical construction using additive manufacturing, surface fabrication and structural component models. The Gaussian Vault offers a unique set of geometric, structural and physical characteristics for testing all three methods of prototyping. The size, shape and proportion of vault prototypes are rapidly generated and tested. The design geometry, material properties and physical construction of the Gaussian Vault are realised using commonly used practice workflows comprising parametric modelling and analysis of geometry, model rationalisation with material characteristics and finally the use of digital fabrication methods. Comparison of the results identifies the characteristics, benefits and limitations of the three approaches. Finally the paper discusses the digital to physical translation processes and summarises the characteristics, benefits and issues encountered in each. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Automation in Construction. Apr2017, Vol. 76, p85-96. 12p.
THREE-dimensional printing, RAPID prototyping, DIGITIZATION of art, ARCHITECTURAL design, and HISTORIC buildings
A combination of the three-dimensional (3D) scanning and cement mortar-based 3D printing technology is used to develop a novel process for reproducing a historical building ornamental component, which is traditionally labor intensive and expensive to construct. A hierarchical algorithm for model slicing and a modified scan line algorithm for nozzle path are developed and presented. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed digital reproduction process, a damaged cup-shaped individual plinth from the campus at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) in China, is 3D scanned, re-modelled, and re-constructed using specific 3D printing technology. An estimation is implemented to the façade of the printed plinth as well as the scanning accuracy. The compressive strength of the printed plinth is tested and calculated, which resulted in 19.8 Mpa and 15.6 Mpa for its vertical and lateral directions, respectively. The reproduction evaluation indicates that the developed process provides the foundation and impetus for future work in the area of the digital reproduction of historical building ornamental components using 3D scanning and cement mortar-based 3D printing. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Willmann, Jan, Knauss, Michael, Bonwetsch, Tobias, Apolinarska, Anna Aleksandra, Gramazio, Fabio, and Kohler, Matthias
Automation in Construction. Jan2016, Vol. 61, p16-23. 8p.
ROBOTICS, RAPID prototyping, ASSEMBLY line methods, WOODEN-frame buildings, and ARCHITECTURAL design
This paper presents a novel approach to non-standard timber assembly – Robotic Timber Construction (RTC) – where robotic fabrication is used to expand additive digital fabrication techniques towards industrial full scale dimensions. Featuring robotic systems that grasp, manipulate, and finally position building components according to a precise digital blueprint, RTC combines robotic assembly procedures and advanced digital design of non-standard timber structures. The resulting architectural morphologies allow for a convergence of aesthetic and functional concerns, enabling structural optimisation through the locally differentiated aggregation of material. Initiated by the group of Gramazio Kohler Research at ETH Zurich, this approach offers a new perspective on automated timber construction, where the focus is shifted from the processing of single parts towards the assembly of generic members in space. As such, RTC promotes unique advantages over conventional approaches to timber construction, such as, for example, CNC joinery and cutting: through the automated placement of material exactly where it is needed, RTC combines additive and largely waste-free construction with economic assembly procedures, it does not require additional external building reference, and it offers digital control across the entire building process, even when the design and assembly information are highly complex. This paper considers 1) research parameters for the individual components of RTC (such as computational design processes, construction methods and fabrication strategies), and 2) the architectural implications of integrating these components into a systemic, unifying process at the earliest stages of design. Overall, RTC leads to profound changes in the design, performance and expressive language of architecture and thus fosters the creation of architecture that profoundly reinvents its constructive repertoire. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The two-dimensional unfolding of three-dimensional volumes allows architectural design and production methods to be rethought in a creative way. This paper reviews spatial and material properties of folded compositions in architecture, through a conceptual proposal based on professional and pedagogic experiences as well as new technologies for geometrical programming and digital fabrication, tested in five alternatives for one case study. The continuous and dynamic two-dimensional projection of a three-dimensional spatial situation provides a geometric relationship between the surface and volumetric configuration of a design, thus enabling a mathematical and operative connection between conditions of perception and production. The material expression of these configurations establishes a significant link between the conceptualisation of the design form, its geometric digital generation, its physical fabrication and overall appearance in a manner analogous to the design process used. The combination of folded compositions with the new technologies available further strengthens their potential, which embraces the fluid nature of human activity with continuous forms and delicately intricate geometries. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Automation in Construction. Apr2002, Vol. 11 Issue 3, p291. 12p.
ARCHITECTURAL design and RAPID prototyping
A framework for the generation and fabrication of architectural massing designs is presented. The framework consists of a computer program, which generates designs based on shape grammars, and rapid prototyping technologies that produce physical models of generated designs. The goal is to illustrate how geometrically complex designs, difficult to produce by hand, can be generated based on a few basic shapes and rules. The software developed uses Java, Open Inventor and cutting-edge 3D graphics technology. The extension of the proposed framework to one using the World Wide Web is briefly discussed. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]